This paper will discuss the process by which various Budo schools were introduced to the Satsuma feudal clan during the Edo era. Martial arts prospered in the beginning of the Edo of period, and prospered again during the last days of the Shogunate. This happened all over Japan. Budo was introduced to Satsuma in 3 days. (1) Martial arts were taught by masterless samurai who came to Satsuma from other parts of Japan. (2) Martial arts were taught by Satsuma samurai who learned Martial arts in Kyoto or Edo. (3) Martial arts were taught by samurai who set up their own schools after learning from either the masterless samurai or the Satsuma samurai who had travelled to Kyoto or Edo. The Notachi-jigen school and Tachi-school are two Jigen-school started their own schools. Both the Notachi-jigen and Tachi-schools taught the skills that their founders had learned in the Jigen school.
We measured isokinetic muscle strength of shoulder, elbow, hip-joint, knee and trunk at varying speed in 4 males Kendo players, using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometers and a Trunk Extension Flexion Unit. We investigated longitudinal changes of skeletal muscle strength by 4 years kendo training. The following results were obtained: (1) For subjects in their second year, body weight and maximal girth of leg increased to that percent body fat decreased. (2) Isokinetic muscle strength on upper limb and lower limb had development until second years. (3) Training in kendo had increasing tendency isokinetic muscle strength under these conditions, shoulder adduction, shoulder internal and external rotation in right hand, hip-joint extension and flexion in both leg, hip-joint adduction in right leg. (4) Isokinetic muscle strength for trunk extension had an increasing tendency every year. In the case of trunk flexion, there was not change exerted at lower contraction speed but at higher.
The object of this study is to evaluate changes in competitors' occupation, rank and age with the passage of years from the 1st (1953) to 40th (1992) All-Japan Kendo Champioships. The author has elucidated how qualification in the Championship have affected the occupation, rank and age. The results were as follows: 1. Changes in competitors' occupation, rank and age with the passage of years. The occupation, rank and age have been verified to have the following deviating tendencies. a) Occupation: Various members of occupations were qualified as competitors in the period I, though policemen increasingly accounted for them in the period II, and subsequently the periods of III and IV. b) Rank: A variety of ranks accounted for them in the period II, though competitors with 6th rank were increasingly qualified in the periods III and IV. c) Age: A broad range of ages accounted for them in the period II, were shrunk to the younger in the period III, and were concentrated in the first half of 30s in the period IV. 2. Effects of occupation, rank and age on qualifications. The qualification was made which inhibits the entry of the competitors with 6th rank or lower in the period IV. As a result, this qualification made the policeman's entry be increased further more times, and that of the kendo teachers and the other younger competitors with 5th rank or lower including students be decreased. The qualification of 6th rank or lower elevated the rank and age, though that of 5th rank or lower reduced the rank slightly and the age.
The purpose of this research was to grasp the. situation and changes on sports system in east European nations through the situation of State Amateurs of Judo in Bulgaria. The following facts were recognized by investigation with references and interview to related persons and organizations. 1. Excellent contestants and their coaches had been given higher standard of monthly salary including allowance for training camp by Physical Education and Sports Association of Bulgaria. 2. The contestants who obtained excellent result in a international competition had been given higher amount of reward or cars and so on. The yearly income of some contestants reached to 4 to 5 times of the amount for normal office workers. Coaches of such contestants had been given 60 to 80% of their reward. 3. The amount of reward to contestants had been increased in a year before and the year of Olympic Games. Olympic Games had been understood as a occasion of enhancing national glory. 4. Excellent contestants and their coaches had been given better conditioned residence and the right to use social facilities and to buy living necessities with cheeper price comparing with general people. And it showed a tendency that some of them changed their clubs because of gaining better condition. 5. Training environment for excellent contestants had been well arranged and they could devote to their trainings without disturbance of obliged work.. In the case of excellent results in the certain competition their future had been guaranteed. 6. Students with excellent contest results in national sports academy, where is a institute to bring up sports coaches, could devote to their trainings without disturbance of any other obligation including their study. 7. As excellent contestants and their coaches had been with high social status and respected as the national heroes by general people they could face to competitions with a pride. And they had been given the opportunity to go to abroad without any restriction. It seems that this opportunity gave them a great financial profit. 8. The sports system with State Amateur had given a great profit to produce sports elites in Bulgaria but it showed fragility in financial matter when the political system of nation was changed. This change leaded unemployment and secession of sports elites, and then finally collapse of State Amateur system.