On July 31,1911, the amended enforcement regulations for Junior High School Ordinance were in force, and Kendo could now be incorporated in the regular school curriculum. Accordingly,5-week seminar was to be held starting November 6 of the same year at the Advanced Teachers College of Tokyo to standardize teaching method. The method introduced in this seminar was what was then called the Group Teaching Method, in which a teacher was to teach many students all at once. Naturally, the teacher paid special attention to keeping the formation of students. The first ever syllabus for Kendo was enacted in the second amendment to the Syllabus of School Gymnastics on June 3,1936. In the meantime, standard method of teaching Kendo in class was the forenamed Group Teaching Method. Before 1936 when the syllabus for Kendo was enacted, the Group Teaching was in fact the only method that was employed. In what way was the method improved and how did it lead to the syllabus for Kendo? The present study makes these processes clear from the vantage point of the system and construction of techniques in Kendo.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristics of “Kangeiko” in kendo with relation to changes in condition and aerobic capacity during Kangeiko, as special practice of kendo in winter, accomplished in a college kendo team. The Kangeiko was performed for 2 hours from 5: 00 to 7: 00 am., and was continued for 10 days in January in 1992 and 1994. Its main practices consisted of “Kirikaeshi” and “Kakarigeiko” for 30-40 minutes by the interval training form, and “Gokakugeiko” for about 30 minutes. We studied the condition of 39 college kendo players who participated in Kangeiko in 1992. They were instructed to record their physical, technical, mental, and total conditions with 5-point rating scale numbered from 1 to 5 (1; very bad,2; bad,3; commonly,4; good,5; very good). In 1994, we evaluated aerobic capacity (VO2 max) of 20 college kendo players before and after Kangeiko using multistage fitness test. They recorded their aerobic training program before Kangeiko, physical condition during and after Kangeiko with the same 5-point rating scale, and their life style for 2 days after Kangeiko. Although most of the physical, technical, mental, and total conditions did not improve during Kangeiko, some conditions such as muscle soreness, sleep, and endurance were significantly improved during Kangeiko for the players who have ever participated Kangeiko. Individual differences were observed in changes in aerobic capacity after Kangeiko, although the aerobic capacity was significantly decreased 3days after Kangeiko. In the players, whose aerobic capacity was decreased morethan 5% 3 days after Kangeiko, the aerobic capacity was remained at a significantly low level 3 months after Kangeiko. There was no significant difference in physical condition during and after Kangeiko between the players whose aerobic capacity was decreased and not. Most of the players did not carry out aerobic training before Kangeiko. There was a case of inadequate life style among the players whose aerobic capacity was remarkably decreased 3 days after Kangeiko. We concluded that changes in condition and aerobic capacity during Kangeiko would be influenced by condition before Kangeiko, experience, training load and program of Kangeiko, and life style after Kangeiko.
Zensin-Mukei-Ryu Kenjutsu School (literally Zen Meditation-Intangible swardsmanship School)was founded by Shichirozaemon Minamoto-no Takesato Tajima (Takesato Tajima). a headman of Ogose Village (presently Ogose Town, Saitama Prefecture), influenced by Ohyama-Shinko (a Kind of mountainous folk belief) in AD 1800. The School had been prospering until 1830. This study aimed at clarifying the plan made by the disseminators (mentors) of Ohyama belief who took advantage of Zensin-Mukei Ryu. The results are summarized as follows: 1. In the middle of the Edo Period, many farmers of middle or upper class in the Bushu District (presently Saitama Pref. and its vicinity) wanted to practice Kogen-Itto-Ryo Kenjutsu School that had been established in the same district. Then, Takesato Tajima, one of the studens of Kogen-Itto-Ryu. founded another new school, Zensin-Mukei-Ryu in 1800, a branch split from Kogen-Itto-Ryu. It (Zensin-Mukei-Ryu) spread in Ogose Village and its vicinity. 2. Takesato Tajima and his 114 students dedicated a tablet to Kasuga Shrine of Ogose Village, on which the names of the members of Zensin-Mukei-Ryu were writen. On the Tablet we can also find the names of 21 disseminators of Ohyama belief in the Soshu District (presently Kanagawa Pref. and its vicinity), mixed with those of other students in the neighborhood. 3. Mt. Ohyama in Isehara City, Kanagawa Prefecture, is located 1252 meters above sea level. The faith in Mt. Ohyama was born in ancient days when farmers and fishermen in the Kanto District prayed for rain and good harvest. The disseminators of Ohyama had been propagating their belief around the kanto District for acquiring their followers. They organized “Ohyama-Ko”, a pilgrim association of having the same faith. They climbed together Mt. Ohyama and made a monetary contribution to Ohyama Shrine. 4. Then there had been several “Ohyama-Ko” around the Ogose Village. Takesato Tajima and his students also had faith in Mt. Ohyama. They had made a pilgrimage to Mt. Ohyama, and stayed with Sato Ohsumi, one of the disseminators, who was also one of the students of Takesato Tajima. 5. The disseminators of Mt. Ohyama had come to resort to force for protecting themselves from enemies whom they came across while spreading their belief. Before AD 1800, they had been the students of Kogen-Itto-Ryu. After 1800, however, they were converted to Zensin-Mukei-Ryu. This shows how the disseminators came to be affiliated with Zensin-Mukei-Ryu. 6. In short, the disseminators conceived that being the students of Takesato Tajima would help them to increase the number of their believers. On the other hand, Takesato Tajima, saw to it that he could take advantage of Mt. Ohyama's religious influence in order to expand Zensin-Mukei-Ryu. Thus, Zensin-Mukei-Ryu was established to promote mutual benefit with the disseminators of Ohyama belief.