One of the characteristic culture of Budo is to exist of many schools in Budo. As the conditions of a school formation in Budo. S. Nakabayashi pointed out(1) A founder is born and discoverd a trick,(2)A trick is arranged (3) Arrange of instruction. But there hasn't been illustrated on the point of the conditions of a school formation in Jujutsu, yet. And so we considered the conditions of a school formation in Takenouchi-Ryu-Jujutsu being the first appearance in Jujutsu. The results were as follows: 1) Hisamori Takeuchi, a founder of Takenouchi-Ryu-Jujutsu was the head of a family and went on knight errantry in order to himself. At last he founded Takenouchi-Ryu-Jujutsu in 1532. 2) The second established a Law, Keeping a trick from another and making a courtesy with pupils. He made HEIHO-KA and lectured pupils preparation for battle according with Zen. 3) The third invented the system of promotion, for example from entrance to be up to Tassha, Mokuroku, Zirou, Menkyo and Inka. He instructed the trainer KATA from easy to difficult in accordance with the system of promotion.
Kendo became required in prewar secondary schools (normal schools and middle schools) on 10 January 1931 (sixth year of Showa), when the normal school regulations and the enforcement regulations of secondary school legislation were amended. At the time, however, only the regulations were amended and there was no increase of teaching hours or enactment of teaching guidelines. Those essential changes had to wait until 3 June 1936, when the second amendment to the school physical education teaching guidelines was promulgated. On this occasion, teaching guidelines for Kendo was officially enacted for the first time. Ukichi Sato, who drafted the teaching guidelines for Kendo stated that the purpose of teaching Kendo at schools was to “discipline the will power of students.” On this principle, the teaching guidelines incorporated group teaching method which was handed down since the last years of Meiji Period (1912-1968). The current essay shed some light on the characteristics of Sato's teaching guidelines for Kendo. Also considered in the essay are the differences in the attitudes toward teaching guidelines for Kendo and the contents of teaching between the two teachers college for Kendo: Tokyo Higher Normal School and Greater Japan Society for Military Virtue Budo Technical College for Kendo.
Shiai-kenjutsu or bamboo sword match with protective gear (Bogu) was created and developed by the Jikishinkage-ryu school in the early eighteenth century with the purpose of improving Kenjutsu (Japanese fencing) which had lost opportunities for actual contact. Today's Kendo has its origin in this match. A recent study (Yoshio Kobayashi et al.1993) maintains that the Hokushin-itto-ryu school built its theory of bamboo sword match between the Koka and the Kaei era (1844-1853). However, no report has been made which clarified the features of other Kenjutsu schools using bamboo swords and protective gear before that period. Shinto-munen-ryu Kenjutsu Kokoroe-gaki, owned by National Diet Library, was written by Muto Shichinosuke, a master of Shinto-munen-ryu in Sukekawa Village (present-day Hitachi City, Ibaraki Prefecture), who was active in the Tenpo era (1830-1843). It describes the features of other seven Kenjutsu schools: protective gear, bamboo swords, postures, techniques, tactics and the customs to deal with them. The main points of this manuscript are summarized as follows: Prior to the Koka era, each of the Kenjutsu schools had original postures, techniques and tactics. For exemple, 1. Itto-ryu: a fencer mainly thrusts at the opponent's chest and face from the Lower posture (Gedan). 2. Jikishinkage-ryu: a fencer strikes his opponent's head gear and gloves with both hand constantly from the Upper posture (Jodan). 3. Kyoshin-meichi-ryu: a fencer principally makes one hand strikes constantly from the Upper posture while putting his left foot forward. 4. Ryugo-ryu: a fencer strikes his opponent's whole body, especially the legs. Protective gear (Bogu) were not the same among the schools. Head gear (Men) and gloves (Kote) were worn in common, but body-protecters (Take-gusoku or Do) were not because body-protecters were primitive in those days and some schools assumed that it could hinder the movement of a fencer.
We found a major problem in the scoring procedures in our examination of the first, fifth, and sixth exhibitions. The judge use a system taking the first competitor as the standard against which all others are compared. This means that because they don't know what type of competitor will appear later on, there in psychological pressure which pushes scores upward as the competition progresses, producing a trend which favors competitors in the latter half. Before considering whether or not there had been any improvement in the judging procedures for the Chinese martial arts form competitions over the last five years, we first looked at materials on the eleventh tournament (1994) to study the inter-rater reliability of judges. This covered 36 events. The results demonstrated the following; (1) This was the first examination of the inter-rater reliability of the judging for Chinese martial arts form competitions. The Pearson correlation coefficient r exceeding 0.8 was only 32% overall, and the Kendall coefficient of concordance W exceeding 0.8 was 31% overall. On the other hand, the judging for the 1971 gymnastic competition is reported as showing 85% r at 0.80. Compared to this, there is obviously a big problem with the judging of Chinese martial arts. (2) While the unified form judging demonstrates greater reliability than the individual form judging, the reliability is by no means high, and there are still problems remaining in the methods for unified judging as well. (3) In speaking of inter-rater reliability of judging, we can say there are severe problems with the skills evaluations for advancement tests and testing of certified instructors for 24 form taichi rules, which show low reliability (W=0.5). These should be re-evaluated using the Yang-style taichi rules, which demonstrate much high reliability (W=0.9). (4) On examining 12 events, the inter-rater reliability of judging for the championship round, involving limited numbers of competitors, was found to be clearly higher than for the preliminary rounds .rounds. Even judging methods which are not considered adequate demonstrate reliability, but scoring pocedures for unreliable judging methods are already clearly invalid.
In our last report we demonstrated the extremely low inter-rater reliability of the judging for Chinese martial arts form competitions. However, the level of fairness of the order entry for competitors is another problem. We compared this with the problems in our last report (Shichido, et al.,1990). The results are as follows; (1) The results of the run test proved that the order of appearance is not always random. (2) In four events there was a clear upward trend in scoring. Even though the upward trend overall was no longer visible, there was a definite tendency in the distribution of scores. This was seen in seven events. We must make special note of the fact that an unusual downward was observed in three events. There are doubts about the fairness of the order of entry of competitors. (3) The accuracy of scoring was seen in the standard deviation. We looked at three competitions (first, fifth, and eleventh). However, even though the number of events in each of these competitors was different, comparison of scoring accuracy between them shows no sign of improvement. The accuracy of judging for events with quick movements was also poor compared to that of events with slow movements. (4) We also compared the scores for the same competitor in both preliminary and final rounds. The avarage score and standard deviation of the final round was high compared to the preliminary round. This proves that the method scoring for each individual competitor is not independent. (5) The difference in average scores for the winners of the seventh through eleventh competitions shows a downward trend. However, it is impossible to measure the improvement in competitor's scoring simply from observing those of the winners. There was no discernible improvement over the five years since the inclusion of required forms. It remains difficult to say the competition is organized as a scored match. At the very least, the Japan Wushu Taijiquan Federation should strive for fairness in order of appearance of competitors.
The present study investigated factors affecting the acquisition of a favorite throwing technique “tokui-waza” in judo and determined factors influencing the choice. A questionnaire was used to survey 333 university or collegiate judoists (UC-judoists) and 97 junior high school judoists (JHS-judoists). The subjects provided the name of their favorite throwing technique and indicated the degree of influence on the acquisition of this technique for each of 43 factors related to the attributes of the judoist, characteristics of the throwing technique, and circumstances of the judoist. The names and the percentage of favorite throwing techniques for UC-and JHS-judoists were determined and compared between the two judoist groups. Among the physique attributes of the judoist, height and body type of the judoist were important factors for both UC-and JHS-judoists. In general, the factors related to functional and mental attributes and the experience of the judoist influenced the selection of a favorite throwing techniques, and there was little difference in the degree of influence between UC-and JHS-judoists. The most important factors for UC-and JHS-judoists were agility and results of past contests, respectively. Although factors related to the characteristics of the throwing technique influencing the acquisition of favorite techniques were similar for UC-and JHS-judoists, unpaired t-test revealed that the degrees of influence were different for some factors between the two judoist groups. The UC-judoists tended to consider technical characteristics when selecting a favorite throwing technique, whereas the feeling of throwing and appearance of throwing rather than technical characteristics may contribute to the choice for JHS-judoists. With respect to circumstances of the judoist, it was suggested that the factors and degree of influence were similar regardless of the skill level and experience of the judoist. Especially, the advice of the manager or coach was an important factor in selecting favorite throwing techniques for both UC-and JHS-judoists.