In A. D.1750 two Komusous visited Shinzaburou SAGAWA at Shinkage School in Sendai Clan and played several matches against the Sagawa's disciple. Shinzaburou SAGAWA left a detailed note of the occurence, namely, Ikkan Seizan Sagawa-sensei Shiai Shimatsu. Three written copies of it in the possession of the Saito-houonkai Natural History Museum and the Miyagi Prefectural Library have been analyzed by the present author. The purpose of this study is fourfold: (1) To clarify who two Komusous called one of them Ikkan and another of them Seizan were. (2) To clarify the purpose for which they went on a Knight-Errantry Tour in A. D.1750. (3) To clarify what kinds of samurai there were in the Sagawa's discple. (4) To clarify how they played the matches and what kinds of protector they played with. Briefly, the main conclusions were as follows: (1) Ikkan's name was Gonpachiro HARADA and Seizan's Hannojou NAKAGAWA. Both of them were the samurais of the middle rank in Kameyama clan. (2) They went on a Knight-Errantry Tour for the purpose of learning practical Bujutsu because, at that time, the educational system of Bujutsu was defective in Kameyama clan and many riots of the peasants were got up everywhere in Japan. (3) Half the number of the Sagawa's disciple were the samurais of vassal's vassales and of the lowest rank in Sendai clan. (4) The matches of Sagawa-Shinkage School was played with Fukuroshinai (a kind of bamboo sword) and “Menpou Tebukuro” (the protector of the face and the forearm), but these protectors had no conection with the parts that the players striked on. They striked on Kobushi (the fist) or Wakitsubo (the armpit).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristic view on kendo which the aged kendo men have. We have compared the aged kendo men with young kendo people in particular. The data was obtained through questionaires from 260 aged kendo men and to 1807 young kendo people. Factor analysis was applied to the 25 X 25 correlation matrix and the factors were rotated with Normal Varimax criterion. Main findings are as follows: 1. In comparison with young kendo people, the aged kendo men acknowledge the value of the traditional part of kendo emphatically. These characteristic key-words are “Budo”, “the upper and lower classes”, “spirit (KIRYOKU)”, “attitude”, “state (KYOCHI)”, and “wholeheartedness”. 2. As the result of factor analysis in both the aged kendo men and young kendo people, the following four factors were made clear. They are “spread & effect”, “young kendo people keep distance”, “make much of physical strength”, “Budo in the affirmative”. The aged kendo men concerned themselves that young people keep distance from kendo. 3. The aged kendo men understand that kendo is “Budo” but that there are two faces in its attractiveness: One is “health & friendship” which the other sportsmen feel for sports, the other is “train & discipline & skill” which are characteristic of kendo or Budo.
We measured the impact force in face-mask attacks, using as subjects ten male university students who major kendo and practice everyday. Three different attacking points were set: (a) 15 cm lower than the subject's height, (b) the same height as the subject, (c) 15 cm higher than the subject's height, and the subjects performed face-mask attacks to each point. We analyzed the difference of the elements in the impact force. By using a motion analysis system with a video tape recorder, we also analyzed the technical characteristics which are considered to influence the elements in the impact force. The following are the obtained results: 1. As the attacking point was set higher, the forward maximum impact force and impulse became the greater, but on the contrary, the downward maximum impact force and impulse became smaller. As the attacking points were set higher, the forward force and the downward force were more reciprocated. 2. The subject A showed the narrowest angle between the Shinai and the forarms at the moment of attack. As the attacking point was set higher, the angle became wider, and the subject C showed the widest angle. These facts were significantly related with the generation of the forward force and the downward force in the impact force. 3. The subject A used the farthest hitting part of Shinai and the subject C used the nearest hitting part of Shinai. It was observed that as the attacking points were set higher, the subjects used farther hitting part of Shinai. 4. It was suggested the hitting portion of Shinai and the active period of force were related, although the attacking points were set variously.
Though Judo has been recognized as an international modern Sport, it is assumed that the traditional Japanese spirit and culture is still evident in Judo. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional Japanese values toward Sport held by Japanese Judo players and Japanese general sports people. A questionnaire survey, which was based upon the scales of H. Tatano (1984), was conducted to a group of Judo players (n=112, males, University students) and a group of sports people (n=139, males, University students). The data was analyzed from the viewpoints of 4 factors and revealed the following results 1. The Judo group tend to admit having the “spiritual self-discipline”. But the Sports group also tend to have it, thus it was not seen to be a particular tendency in the Judo group.Almost all Japanese sports people including Judo or other traditional martial arts players seemed to have this kind of discipline. 2. The Judo group tend to admit to a higher “technical self-discipline” than the Sports group.This meant that the Judo group put a higher emphasis on the process of acquiring techniques. This was thought to be due to the formation of personal character through the acquiring of techniques, and originated in the way of Samurai warriors. 3. Both of the groups tend to admit “the emotions of shame and obligation to the group” which was a typical emotion in the Samurai society. But it was not as high a tendency as we expected in the Judo group. 4. The Judo group were slightly more negative than the Sports group towards “traditional formality”. It was thought that modern Judo players were inclined to put a higher value on the essence of Judo rather than on meaningless seniority and behavioral patterns.
The purpose of this study was to determine specifically what effect Judo has on the structure ofthe left ventricle, in terms of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold, in relation to weight of the athlete. This study used 17 Japan female Judo athletes who were part of the delegation to the Olympic Games, and national elite Judo athletes appointed by the All Japan Judo committee who compete in domestic Judo championships. The structure of the left ventricle was measured by echocardiography using the M-mode method. VO2 max was measured in a breath by breath method with a cycle ergometer and the indicated value was converted to a treadmill value. The subjects were divided into three groups : in the light class were six athletes (48.0-56.0kg), in the middle class were five athletes (56.0-66.0kg) and in the heavy class were six athletes (above 66.0kg). The following results were obtained : In terms of physical characteristics, the average height of the members of the light, middle, and heavy classes were 156.3 cm, 159.5 cm, and 165.9 cm respectively ; the average weight were 54.0kg, 58.5kg, and 71.4kg, respectively. The body mass index (BMI) were 22.0, 23.0, and 26.1 in the three groups. However, the percent of body fat were 16.3%, 18.6%, and 20.9%, and it is thought that the BMI of the heavy class is not responsible for the increase in fat volume, but due to lean body mass. In the structure of left ventricle, the interventricular septum thickness (IVST) of the three groups was 7-8mm, and the left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) was nearly 7mm. These values agreed with those in other female athletes. Female Judo athletes who compete with relatively intense muscle contraction did not indicate any myocardial hypertrophy. The left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (Dd) in the light, middle and heavy classes were 52.8 mm, 52.4 mm, and 53.9 mm respectively. It is considered that these values were higher in comparison with other elite athletes (47-55 mm). Therefore,the left ventricular dimensions of female Judo athletes who train with volume load is large. Without regard to weight, the Dd and aortic dimensions are bigger. It was suggested that this has a strong effect on the vascular system because it has been pointed out that increasing Dd produces an increase in the aorta which consists of collagen fibril. VO2 max per body weight in the light, middle, and heavy classes were 45.9 ml/kg.min-1, 43.7 ml/kg.min-1, and 43.1 ml/kg.min-1, respectively. The values which were converted to treadmill values were 52-55 ml/kg .min-1.This value is almost the same compared to other female sports athletes of 50-55ml/kg.min-1 suggesting that Judo athletes have a good systemic aerobic capacity. Averaged values of the ventilatory threshold in the light, middle, and heavy classes were 62.3%, 60.5%, and 60.3% respectively, and these were the same as other elite athletes. The Dd of the subject, Sugawara Noriko, light class, who participated in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games was 53.6 mm, her VO2max (converted) was 63 ml/kg.min-1, and her anaerobic threshold was 72% of VO2max. The Dd of the subject, Tanabe yoko, heavy class, was 56.7 mm, her VO2max (converted) was 50 ml/kg.min-1, and her anaerobic threshold was 74% of VO2max. These results which are equal to those of long distance runners are due to daily aerobic training, and suggest that athletes who take part in international competition have good, basic physical fitness as well as technique as elite sport athletes.
We recorded breathings and the patterns of motion of rib cage, upper abdomen and lower abdomen on the breathing methods in three subjects trained by the oriental training methods, and tried to determine the ways of respiratory movement. To monitor breathings, we used a pneumotachograph, and for the patterns of motion of three parts, we used three respiration pickups (rubber tube enclosed carbon). Though some problems remained, the results told us that it was possible to analyze more complicated respiratory movements by means of the method of measurement in this study. And some of the ways of respiratory movements were also able to determine. Simultaneously we estimated the postures by the spinal curvatures recorded by a conformateur, and two ways of adjusting posture was observed. Relationships between the ways of adjusting posture and the ways of respiratory movement need further study.