The authors have studied the evolution of four major kendo techniques (men, tsuki, kote, and do) to see how they have developed into modern kendo. The present study focuses on changes in the kote technique. From the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until 1945, there were 450 books published on kendo. Among them, we have found that 64 systematically illustrate the four major techniques of kendo. From these 64 treatises, the following major characteristics of kote technique can be observed: 1. Three variations of kote, namely; fukagote (striking the opponent's forearm after carrying your shinai bamboo sword over the shoulder), okorigasirakote (striking the opponent's forearm the moment he moves to attack), and osaegote (holding the opponent's shinai bamboo sword and striking his forearm when he moves to strike your head), were used since the end of the Edo Period (1600-1868). 2. Two other variations, agegote (striking the opponent's lifted forearm when he moves to hold his sword over his head), and makigote (striking on the forearm after holding his sword with yours in a winding motion) began to spread during the beginning of the Taisho Era (1911-1925). 3. Another variation, hidarigote (striking the opponent's left forearm), disappeared before the beginning of the Showa Era (1925). 4. Still one other variation, hikigote (striking the forearm while stepping backward after a dead heat of pushing on each other's sword guards), first appeared during the end of the Taisho Era and subsequently became popular. 5. Most of the special kote techniques of which there is only one example were recorded in books of kendo during the transitional period to competitive kendo of Taisho 5-10 (1916-1921).
Toshihiko Koga is an outstanding Judo player not only in Japan but also in the world. He was a gold medalist in the Barcelona Olympic Games and a champion of the World Judo Championships in 1989 and 1991 at the 71 kg weight class. At the “'95 World Judo Championships”, held at Makuhari, Chiba Pref., Japan, Koga entered into the 78 kg weight class that was one rank heavier weight class for Koga. He became a champion in this weight class. It is very interesting and important for those concerned with Judo to know why Koga is so strong and which points of his techniques in Nagewazaes are superior. [Purposes of this Study] The purposes of this study were 1) to analyze the Judo bouts of Koga, and 2) to clarify the superiority of his technique of Nagewazaes from the biomechanical viewpoint. [Methods of this Study] All bouts of the “'95 World Judo Championships” were televised by some TV station monopolistically, so it was prohibited for the scientists to operate movie cameras and video cameras at the Judo contest, even scientifically. Consequently, the televised bouts were recorded by using the home videocassette recorder and these video taped were recorded again by using a video timer. The necessary informations for analyzing the Nagewazaes of Koga was gained from the computer analysis by using these rerecorded video tapes. [Results and Considerations] Fig.1-(1),1-(2) and 1-(3) show the traces of Koga's movement in his bouts. They are shown that Koga went forward almost of his bouts. Fig.4,5 and 6 show the sequence motions of Koga's Oogoshi (in the third round), Sodetsurikomigoshi (in the semi final) and Ipponseoinage (in the final) and Fig.7,8 and 9 show the stick pictures of these sequence motions. Fig.10 shows the time duration of each phase from the first stage of Kake until the final stage of a determination of Ippon of these Nagewazaes. From these figures, several points of the superiority of his Nagewaza techniques were pointed out. His reflection time and reaction time for doing Nagewaza were so quick and his pulling strength was so firm that his opponent could not move and escape from his Nagewaza. And it is supposed that he has the strong backmuscle groups and the strong leg muscles. He has a good stability in his throwing posture (Ashi no Kamae and Koshi no Tsukuri) and a good spring function at the moment of Haneage (leaping),22 due to a good knee movement in his performance of Oogoshi, Sodetsurikornigoshi and Ipponseoinage.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the subjective rating of HANTEI between referees and players in Judo. The questionnaire items were the twenty-seven cases of HANTEI that could not objectively determine which player won the contest within the limit of the rules. Subjects consisted of one-hundred eighty-six referees and five-hundred players. All data was tallied into the cross-table by two subject groups and was tested with a chi-square test. The following results were obtained. 1) Players thought that the popularity of the players and audience encouragement had an influence on the HANTEI. However, the referees did not think so. 2) Compared with non-declared points of techniques and attitude, a positive attitude was regarded as advantageous for obtaining points by players. 3) Concerning the effect of techniques and penalties, there were tendencies that referees paid more attention to the latter and that players paid more attention to the former. 4) Concerning the factors of time, sorts of techniques, throwing techniques and ground works and non-declared points, referees supported the major opinion. To the contrary, players gave noncommittal answers.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the characteristics of the perception of kendo held by elementary school pupils. Responses were received from a total of 1677 pupils. Factor analysis was applied to the 54 X 54 correlation matrix and the factors were rotated with Normal Varimax criterion. The results of this research may be summarised as follows. 1. As the results of factor analysis in the elementary school pupils, the following four factors were observed; 1) affirmation of the contents and results of kendo training; 2) mental or behavioral evasion from kendo; 3) desire for improvement in training and victory in competition; 4) motivation to continue kendo. 2. Realization of the effects of kendo, personal enjoyment and motivation to continue kendo are factors of the frequency of practice. 3. Positive experiences such as skill acquisition and victory not only increase a pupils' motivation to continue kendo; a lack of these experiences may contribute to quitting kendo altogether. 4. Respondents of the lower level group practicing kendo infrequently feel discouraged about victory and skill acquisition, and are burdened by the fear of striving for higher goals. This group shows a strong desire to evade kendo resulting from discontentment over the restraints of kendo practice. Instructors must be sensitive to the perspectives of the pupils and spirit of kendo and make efforts to find out effective teaching method to foster the pupils' motivation to continue kendo.