Early documents on Japanese archery by foreigners are valuable for their records of former bow and arrow usage and archery-related Japasese culture. Zen in the Art of Archery by E. Herrigel is well known. Herrigel stressed the mystical aspects of “The Way of Archery”, or kyudo. Therefore, there is no precise description of shooting technique in his book. Another early manuscript on kyudo, written in the early Showa period, was recently rediscovered by Dutch kyudo practitioners. Fundamentals of Japanese Archery (1937) by Toshisuke Nasu and William R. B. Acker, is the oldest extant manuscript of kyudo written in English and contains precise, technical shooting description. Its authors, however, are relatively unknown. We found new historical records on W. R. B. Acker at Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. from which we can conclude following points. (1) W. R. B. Acker was born in New York in 1907 and studied East Asian art. He worked for the Freer Gallery of Art, Ghent University, and other universities. Acker passed away 1974. (2) He resided in Kyoto as a field researcher for the Freer Gallery of Art from 1933 to 1937. In addition to his study of East Asian art, Acker practiced kyudo. (3) Acker practiced kyudo with a Chikurin-school kyudo archer and his friend, Toshisuke Nasu. (4) He was also involved in various other activities, including practicing Zen, living in a 'Zen temple, and translating an early Chinese archery book, Bukyo Shagaku Seiso, into English. Acker's study is an orthodox kyudo textbook, in contrast to Herrigel's mystical work. Acker was forgotten, while Herrigel was great success. In the future, this study will investigate the Western cultural atmosphere underlying the acceptance of these books.
The judo competition performance is affected by morphorogical parameters. We examined 485 competition performance in All Japan Women Judo Championship competitions from 1986 to 1995. 1) Characteristics of participant profiles in these championship had tendency to high-ranking (dani), increased age, heigt, and body weight. 2) It is suggested that, the probability of victory at the time of variation of the over 6cm in height and the over 31 kg in weight was great. 3) The ratio of won of a poor constitution to a strong constitution was a matter of 35%-43% by vasous these parameters.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological state of the top kendo players when they are playing at their peak. The following results were obtained by using the Garfield Clustering Method on leading players and kendo students. 1) The psychological state of both leading kendo players and kendo students when they are performing at their peak can be described as “mentally relaxed, ” “focused on the present, ” and “highly energized”. 2) The group of leading kendo players felt that they were “highly in control, ” but did not report being in a state that could be described as “Confident, ” “transcendation of self (unlikelihood)”.
It investigated this research about an influence that exercise characteristic in kendo gives for Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of a college female kendo players. Testing method The test group was composed of 99 female college student players. The measurement method included ultrasonic scaning, and it measured a bone of right heel. The three indicators of BMD are SOS, BUA, Stiffness. With regard to an exercise characteristic difference of BMD when female kendo players and athletes from other sports were compared. The following results were discovered. 1) For every measurement figure of BMD by kendo players was following, SOS figure was 1586.5±30.6 m/sec BUA was 121.3±10.7 db/MHz Stiffness was 104.9±14.2 20 years old comparative figure was 114.5±15.5% Same generation coparative figure was 114.5±15.7% BMD of a college female kendo players was high density in comparison to people who do little exercise in the same generation. 2) In SOS figure that compares anohter tournament sports players could be displayed as follows, basketball > gymnastics > kendo > judo > swimming 3) For BUA and Stiffness figures could be displayed as follows, basketball > judo > kendo > gymnastics > swimming
The change of the biomechanical properties in Men-attack motion induced by different heights of target was studied in 5 adult Kendo men. The three heights of target were set up, the same height (±0cm)as the stature of each subject,20cm higher target (+20cm) and 20cm lower target (-20cm) than the stature of each subject. The photographical data in Men-strike phase and force curve pattern in take-off phase during Men-attack motion were analyzed by 16mm cine-camera and force platform, respectively. The difference of the biomechanical properties in Men-attack motion were compared between the conditions of ±0, +20 and-20cm. (1) The higher the height of target elevated, the lower the Maai distance changed. (2) The higher the height of target elevated, the larger the maximum values of the force curve (Fz and Fy)estimated from the take-off motion started from the regulated Maai distance changed. In the case of take-off motion started from the adjusted Maai distance, however, there was no difference of maximum values of the force curve between the three conditions. (3) There were no difference of the angle made toe, body gravity and horizontal line and the angle made upper part of the body and horizontal line in Men-strike phase. It was the angle made left arm and trunk in Men-strike phase that changed larger according as the height of target elevated.