It was for aim of this paper to study the role which Eujutsu (martial arts) served in the liberty and people's rights movement organized at Meiji earlier period in Japan. I will show the result found with this paper in the following. 1. Bujutsu as a political culture The liberty and people's rights movement was the political movement that succeeded problems of revolutin of Meiji Restoration, and this had continued from 1874 that they demanded establishment of democratically elected House (Diet) to about 1890 of Diet establishment. The main activities of this movement's peoples were announcements of their principles on journals and speeches in their address meetings at first. However, Meiji government issued several laws and ordinances which regulated holding of address and publication of journals, and oppressed their movement. The side of association of the democratic movement produced a unique political culture that unified athletic meets, a social gathering and address meeting in order to evade the crackdown. And the associations of the democratic movement frequently took Bujutsu, especially Kenjutsu in the athletic meets. Many of the forms of these Bujutsu performances were collective conflicts. And the performances amplified “mob mentality” of peoples anticipating in the democratic movement, and raised an emotion of revolting against the government. 2. Bujutsu for training “champions” of the liberty and people's rights movement A lot of associations of the democratic movement took Bujutsu in order to not only amplify the “mob mentality” but also train “champions” of the democratic movement that fight for their associations and this nation. In other words they were going to train the talent which have spirits for political conflict. Because we know that 2055 number associations at least promoting the movement for democatic rights existed in all over Japan, we can suppose that enormous peopls trained Bujutsu with the movement. On the history of Bujutsu in Japan as before, we know that the Bujutsu were encouraged in police at after 1877. However, the measures of encouraging Bujutsu in police should be considered in relation with this liberty and people's rights movement as the antagonism axis. In addition, it may be said that the hosts of Bujutsu trainers adding the police side and the democratic movement side built basis for Bujutsu to spread after. We will not be able to think the reason that “Dainippon Butokukai” (general control association of Bujutsu) established in 1895 could get enormous members during short period except for thinking in this way.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how Judo practitioners since World War II have continued to employ Jigoro Kano's values in Judo. The study was conducted through an analysis of articles in the Judo Newspaper published between 1951 and 1996. Jigoro Kano's values in Judo are divided into the following eight categories based on Nagaki's study (1999): 1) Morality,2) Intellect,3) Physicality,4) Technique,5)Martial Art,6) Seiryoku-zenyou,7) Jita-kyoei, and 8) Cultural Identity. The following points more clearly define the categories: 1. The value of moral training, which is considered most important in Kano's values, appeared most often. Therefore, it is clear the value has been retained. However, after the middle 1980s, the importance of ths value has declined. A couple of reasons for this trend could be that Judo competition has become more international and old generation practitioners have been replaced by younger practitioners. 2. “Seiryoku-zenyou”, definde as the most effective use of one's spiritual and physical strength, and “Jita-Kyouei”, defined as a harmony between oneself and others, are clearly an invaluable part of the Judo philosophy. However, this study makes clear that these values have become merely names lacking any connection with concrete practices. 3. On the technical side of Judo, the principle of beating opponents by using one's strength continued to be passed on. However, the value placed on technique has not been comparable to that placed on other sports and gymnastics. In addition, popular appeal and interest in technique, as currently practiced, are less significant than they were in Kano's traditional values. 4. Kano valued Judo as a strong martial art, and this value has been retaine to some degree. However, the value hasn't been emphasized recently. The limitation placed on this value is probably due to the very strict rules of competition in placee today. 5. Kano valued Judo as a form of Japanese culture, and this value has been retained to some degree. On the other hand, the significance of Judo and its concern with the Japanese nation and its people has not ben satisfactorily emphasized. Furthermore, the worldwide popularization of Judo has been declining considering the facts that Judo has become international and a universal value of Judo has been required since World War II.
This paper identifies the “randori” of Meiji Era as the middle stage between the “randori” of modern Jujutsu centering on “binding” and its technical integration into the present Judo centering on “throwing”, and discusses the formative process and developments of the “randori” by schools of Jujutsu in Meiji Era and the “randori” waza in Kodokan Judo. In Jujutsu world in the 20s of Meiji, as Kodokan developed, there occurred a competition between it and schools of Jujutsu. Both groups competed with each other in technique for external matches, and “randori” waza was systematized and technically developed for the purpose of matches. That is, the technique to kill or bind which schools of Jujutsu had was changed into “randori” suitable for external matches. As a result of this change, various Jujutsu techniques were integrated into Kodokan Judo, which was superior to Jujutsu in “randori”.
This paper, as my first research report about the history of techniques in Judo, discusses the system and technical development of “nagenokata” and “katamenokata”, which are thought to be basics of nagewaza and katamewaza respectively. The “nagewaza” no “kata” in jujutukata by Dainipponbutokukai, which was established in 1906, adopted thirteen without any change out of the fifteen “nagenokata” used in Kodokan before while the other two, “sukuinage”, one of the tewazas, and “turiotoshi”, one of the masutemiwaza, were changed into “kataguruma”and “sumiotosi” respectively. On the other hand, fifteen “katamewaza” no “kata” were established by adopting all of the ten used in Kodokan without any change and adding five new ones. This paper describes the technical development of each of the fifteen nagewazas and the fifteen katamewazas.53
The purpose of this study was to investigate what choosing criterions elite high school Judo players choose their entering university by and how their relationships were. The questionnaire consisted of forty-six items about how to choose your university were conducted to four hundred and thirteen elite high school Judo players. Statistical analysis was applied to the date and eight choosing criterions were extracted. These were “economical reasoning”,“ name and curriculum of department”, “public recognition”, “advice by coaches”, “advice by people except for coaches”, “environment for practice”, “human relationship” and “condition commuting for a university”. Comparing with other sport players, elite high school Judo players had a clear positive opinion in “economical reasonin g”, “advice by coaches”, “environment for practice”and “human relationship” A correlation matrix among eight choosing criterions was computed and factor analysis was applied to this. So two factors, “conditions of Judo itself” and “conditions except for Judo” were extracted. From these results, some advices were done in the case of traditional and big universities and small ones.