Since Showa 54 (1979) when the request of guidance by the Ministry of Education was strengthened, it has hoped that the students in Japan master a moral sense. For passed 20 years, in the junior high school and senior high school of Japan, the Ministry of Education has promoted instruction of Budo, and passed the guidance of Budo down. In this paper, the switchover of the contents in the sport program including Budo was studied up on the data (Lesson plans of many kinds of sports) in the custody of the Ministry of Education. The result was as follows. (1) In the schools that the guidance of Budo was promoted, the skill of Budo was taken lower importance than the traditional moral attitude of Japan. Not only in the lesson plan of Budo, but also in the lesson plan of other kind of sports, the moral attitude was esteemed. (2) After Heisei first year (1989), when the subject named “Kakugi” was changed to “Budo” in the school course guidelines, the moral attitude was esteemed more strongly in the lesson plan of Budo. (3)Especially, there were many examples of “For oneself” and “Heart” in the lesson plan of Budo, which were esteemed in concepts of the school educational world. In the present paper, the switchover in the contents from “Budo” to “the physical education that used Budo” is discussed.
The bacterial flora of the Men of Kendo (the fencer wears a helmet and mask in the Japanese fencing)has received little attention. Bacteriological examinations were carried out to get information about bacteria on the Men of Kendo in the Nippon Sport Science University during the four seasons. Forty five strains of typical bacteria istlated from the Men of Kendo were rapidly identified with a Gram-Positive and Negative Identification card used in conjunction with the Auto Microbic system. The isolates were distributed in the 17 genera, Bacillus, Flavimonas, Chryseomonas, Actinobacillus, Stenotrophomonas, Corynebacterium, Comamonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Pasteurella, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Eikenella, Sphingobacterium, Staphylococcus and Acinetobactor. We found that these bacteria were non-pathogenic bacteria which are often found on the Men of Kendo. Its main constituent were Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Micrococcus luteus, which were followed by Bacillus sphaericus. Results obtained in the successive isolation trials showed that Micrococcus luteus as in figure 1 is typical bacteria of the Men during the four seasons. However, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Pseudomonas stutzri, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus strains have recently been noticed as the bacteria of opportunistic infections in the clinical medicine.
The purpose of this study is to compare the present technique of kendo with the past one from the viewpoint of game analysis. The 31st and the 45th All Japan Kendo Championships were chosen as the analysis objects. Information on the movement of the contestants and techniques were collected by monitoring the recorded videotapes of the Championships. By comparing and analyzing the data, the following results were obtained: 1. Increase of Tsuki-attack was seen in the 45th Championships. Yuko-datotsu was also increased. 2. Decrease of Hiki-Waza in the 45th Championships was seen and may be due to the influence of the rule change, especially of the revisions of Jyougai-Hansoku and Tsuba-Zeriai. 3. In the 45th Championships patterns of shinai operation tended to increase in case of Shikake-Waza, and the most significant pattern was attacking as moving forward. 4. While a contestant defended oneself by bending the body to the sides in the 33rd Championships, one raised the shinai towards the right diagonal direction to defend in the 45th event. 5. In the 45th event, techniques to react the opponent's Kote-attack were increased.
Our aim was to investigate aerobic and anaerobic power, correctly measuring metabolic response during graded maximal exercise testing and short-term high power testing continuously for four years, from 1996 to 1999. The subject, who was twice the male national karate champion, was recruited to participate the experiments. The subject underwent the incremental exercise test every 30 watts/3 min until exhaustion to measure the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), CO2 production, (VCO2peak) and ventilation (VEpeak) as an index of the aerobic power, and to determine capillary blood lactate concentration ( [La]b) VO2peak were 50.6, 45.2, 52.1, and 53.0 ml/kg/min, respectively. Peak [La] b increased 4.40, 6.15, 7.10, and 6.51 mM/L, respectively, and the delayed onset of blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise was also observed, being due to higher buffering capacity which is associated with glycolytic enzymes in the muscles. Anaerobic power as measured by the total power for 10 sec on a high-power bicycle ergometer also increased from 936 to 1053 watts, which revealed a much higher anaerobic power compared with competitors in other sports. These results suggest that the karate champion in the heavy weight class had relatively average aerobic power and additionally greater anaerobic power, which may be due to glycolytic potential in the skeletal muscles.