The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive characteristics of offensive processes in collegiate Kendo players at different skill levels (higher, middle, and lower). The characteristics were analyzed from the following three points of view; the amount of cognition on offensive processes, cognition of the movements constructing the processes, and psychological or intentional aspects for the process constructio. Data collection was conducted with video recording of the offensive and defensive movements in Men striking and with a questionnaire on the movements and their psychological aspects. The major results were that the higher-level players well recognized the amount of offensive processes, the relationships between their own movements and the opponents' counter ones, and the psychological aspects of the counter movements. In conclusion, it is important for Kendo players in interpersonal competitions to acquire and comprehend offensive processes as many as possible, and also to recognize the intentional meanings of their own and the opponents' movements for constructing the offensive processes.
This study made 35 games that Japanese players were defeated in the European 4 competitions an analysis object. Following results were obtained. 1. A foreigner player applied many Te-waza, Sutemi-waza as a result of comparing the contents of all applied techniques. On the other hand, much attack with the Ashi-waza was seen with the Japanese player. A significant difference was confirmed between both groups, And, many Kuchiki-taoshi, Sumi-kaeshi, Yoko-otoshi were seen as the characteristics of the foreigner player. Many O-uchi-kari were seen with the Japanese player. 2. A foreigner player took a point with Kuchiki-taoshi,0-uchi-kari, Sumi-kaeshi, Tani-otoshi, Sukui-nage, and the techniques such as a Kata-guruma. 3. It was put together, and a significant difference was confirmed about the Kumite and applied techniques between the foreigner player and the Japanese player. It is proves that the tendency of applied techniques seen by a foreigner player originates in their Kumite. While the cause of defeat of the Japanese player was searched for, the tendency of the technology, tactics of the European judo became a relief. Present judo has been evolving all the more by the international competition of the high level being held with the circuit form. Present tactics and a techniques tendency are continued, and you must analyze it under such conditions.
This study was designed to investigate the physiological effect of the practice of judo in terms of changes in urinary flow, urinary creatinine concentration, and urinary creatinine excretion after three typical judo practices (nagewaza, katamewaza, and uchikomi). The subjects were six male university judo practitioners aged from 18 to 20 years. The subjects performed a 10-minutes typical practice on separate days. All three typical practices, in the order of nagewaza, uchikomi, and katamewaza, brought about significant antidiuretic effects in quantitative terms but no diuretic effects on the subjects. These results indicate that the subjects performed the typical 10-minutes judo practices with less lactic acid oxygen debt than in the case of typical anaerobic exercises.
The bacterial flora of the dohyo (sumo ring) has received little attention. If the flora are identified then treatment or prevention of any bacteriallesions or infections incurred by the wrestlers is possible. In the present study, using the automatic identification kit, the VITEK Auto Microbic System or Automatic Tests in Bacteriology, we describe the bacterial flora found in the dohyo over the four seasons of the year. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium tetani, were found, a possible source of serious infection. The exotoxin formed by Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of lockjaw tetanic spasm, is also neurotoxin. Nippon Sport Science University's dohyo is not a possible. source of infection by the spores of Clostridium tetani as the dohyo in the University is well maintained.
The Chinese martial art “chang chuan” has a long history and has been cited in documents since ancient times. The characteristics of chang chuan movements can be said to parallel chinese history. This martial art form was originally used for protection against wild beasts, and later developed into the skills needed for fighting in battle. In the primitive age, people were always exposed to danger. It was this sense of risk that contributed to the development of chang chuan. The movements in chang chuan are characterized by lightning speeci, powerfulness, light movement, high jumps, and slow and free motion. The slow and free motion originated in combat; the act of stretching the arms and legs to reach the opponent standing at a distance. From a topographical perspective, practitioners stretched their limbs as far as they could in the boundless land of Northern China, leading to the unconscious development of the characteristic slow and graceful movements. Another element which had a indirect impact on the external expressions of chang chuan was the passionate and heroic character of the Northern people. In the clear rhythm and motions of ups and downs and turns in chang chuan, traditional Chinese culture and aesthetic concepts are expressed. In other words, these characteristics reflect the aesthetic sense of Chinese people based on the concepts of Yin-Yang (a set of contrasting but cooexisting concepts). In terms of guiding theories, chang chuan is based on the philosophies of sutra called “yijing”, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Sunzi strategics. In this sense, the martial art is also closely related to the thought and philosophies of the Chinese people. Chang chuan is a hard exercise which combines aerobic and non-aerobic movements. Practitioners exercise every part of the body, and are required to have a high level of overall physical strength in order to fully express the characteristic movements of chang chuan. The practice of chang chuan will train and improve physical strength in a comprehensive manner. From the time of its origin, chang chuan has alwaysbeen influenced by history and culture, and has now developed into a unique form of exercise. Currently, chang chuan is not only a form of martial arts intended for self defense, but an art form which has preserved Chinese traditional aesthetics and medical skills. Chang chuan is helpful in training the body and spirit in terms of speed, power, jumping, starting power, agility, flexibility, stamina, cooperativeness, etc. Despite these benefits, however, chang chuan is relatively unknown. I am determined to continue to provide multi-faceted insights into nan chuan, tai chi, martial arts that employ weapons, and other traditional martial arts.