This study attempts to clarify the concepts of the sword in Shintou Sect doctrine by examining the book, named “Heiho jikansho” written by Mr. Sekihei Otsuki.
The important part to note regarding this book is firstly the enormity and quality of core techniques that were described in writing and consigned to posterity, even though secrecy was prerequisite in the world of modern swordplay. Secondly, I viewpoints on sword concepts in terms of swordsmanship have been summarized in this book. Furthermore, this book not only explains sword techniques, but also our country's attitude towards swords, that have been established since ancient times, are narrated as a whole, not partially. Thirdly, the content of magical acts involving swordsmanship is recorded, which represents the uniqueness of this historical document. The largest discovery in concluding this research is that the artistry of magical acts has been maintained and conveyed in modern swordsmanship.As for the content of Shintou Sect artistry of the magical acts, the following was revealed: 1) In the Shintou Sect, the magical act for exorcism was performed using a sword (s). The sword used for the artistry was considered to be the same as that of “Futsuno-Mitamano Tsurugi.” When an exorcism was performed with this sword, the relationship with a god named Takemikazuchi was an important element, which has been shown in our ancient mythology. 2) This magical act of exorcism was performed in two directions, namely against an enemy one was actually confronting and against an enemy within oneself. 3) The magical act of exorcism using a sword (s) consisted of two elements, which involved both physical movement and linguistic action.
This study investigate the relationship between lower back pain and lumbar tightness in karate-do practitioners. The subjects, fourteen male of the JKF (Japan Karate-do Federation) national team, underwent a five-item medical scale test twice during their camp training in 2000 to examine the relationship between lumbar tightness and lower back pain, and the results indicated a positive relationship. They were also asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding their history of back pain in the first test. The test items included: 1. FFD (Floor Finger Distance),2. SLR (Straight Leg Raising),3. CGD (Calcareous Gluteus Distance),4. HIR (Hip Internal Rotation) and 5. HER (Hip External Rotation) tests. After the first test, they were instructed in stretching and resistance training before beginning a four-month regime of daily exercises. The five-item test was administered again with an interview regarding their lower back pain after completion of the four-month program. While no significant difference between the first and second tests was observed with respect to the positive rates in FFD and CGD tests, the positive rates of tightness around the lower back in SLR, HER and HIR tests reduced significantly, (P < 0.05, P <0.01) and the incidence rates of lower back pain reduced significantly (P <0.05) after the stretching and resistance-training program. Consequently, HER and HIR tests for karate-do practitioners are effective methods to understand the relation ship between lower back pain and lumbar tightness. Further long-term studies with more subjects will clarify the relationship between lower back pain and lumbar tightness, and the validity of the five-item tests.