The athletic aspects of Judo have been enhanced by a number of new rules and systems that were introduced after World War II. One of them is the weight system, which, to some, stands as a threat to the traditional identity of Judo, which is often characterized as softness overcoming hardness. This controversial issue has been discussed in terms of values and attitudes toward competition. The purpose of this study is to identify positively and systematically various aspects of values regarding the weight system. We collected opinions regarding the weight system as reported in the Judo Newsletter since 1952 and divided them into four categories for analysis and study: conservative, reformist, eclectic, and athletics-specific. The results are as follows: 1. The conservatives demonstrated opposition to the weight system, saying that it substantially contradicted ideologies that had existed since prewar times and which they believed were essential to Judo, such as “softness overcomes hardness”, “energy for good use,” and “mutual prosperity.” 2. The reformists' way of thinking could be characterized as American-style rationalism. They put great emphasis on physical strength, rejected the idea of softness overcoming hardness, and agreed with the weight system. 3. The eclectics demonstrated an understanding of the conservatives' belief in the ideas of “softness overcomes hardness”, “energy for good use,” and “mutual prosperity.” At the same time, they agreed with the weight system, which could give lightweights a chance to win. However, those who fit into this category often indicated that they faced a dilemma. 4. The athletics-specific types agreed with the weight system, saying that it was important to promote internationalization of Judo as an athletic sport. They also pointed out the importance of the weight system from the realistic and utilitarian points of view, saying that it could serve as a means to win matches against foreign Judo practitioners, who generally have more physical strength than Japanese practitioners. 5. The weight system was a very controversial issue from 1950 to the mid-1960s, when it was introduced in the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games. The internationalization and rationalization of Judo was promoted through the weight system, supported by the athletics-specific, reformist, and eclectic types. Although the weight system has taken root in Judo, the idea of “softness overcomes hardness,” supported by the conservatives, persists. For example, even today, the All-Japan Championships of Judo are open-weight. The value orientations towards competition regarding Judo, as reflected in the weight system issue, is in a fuzzy state, with those who support flexible adjustment with an emphasis on rationalization and internationalization, as well as those who object to changes and emphasize the importance of tradition.
The purpose of this study was to compare winning points and winning techniques of World Senior Judo Championships (WC) in 1995,1997, and 1999 in order to clarify trends of modern competitive judo of the world. Winning points, winning techniques, type of winning techniques, and content of win by penalties of all the matches were statistically compared among the three WCs. Major findings are: (1) more than 50% of the total matches were won by ippon and the ratio increased through the three WCs, (2) ashi-waza was the most popular throwing technique group of the three WCs while katame-waza showed decreasing tendency, (3) the nage-wazas usually executed with normal kumikata (gripping) tended to increase while those without grip control decreased, (4) the most common penalty was “non-combativity” which occurred over 60% of all penalties, (5)win by penalties showed the highest rate in 1997 but reduced in 1999. The recent changes of refereeing and sports rules seem to influence contents of competitive judo. Further studies regarding the style changes in world competitive judo are needed for keeping the competitive level of Japan judo and for sound development of Kodokan judo.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of competitive ability to body composition, limb composition, and limb muscle strength in varsity Sumo wrestlers. The subjects were 26 varsity Sumo wrestlers. We measured the following parameters: body height, body weight, body composition [percent body fat (%Fat) and lean body mass (LBM)] by the underwater weighing method, skinfold thickness and muscle thickness of the limbs by the B-mode ultrasonic method, and thigh strength and upper arm strength at five angle velocities (-60,0,60,180, and 300 degree·s-1)using a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. We divided the subjects into an upper group (U group: n=14) and lower group (L group: n=12) on the basis of their competitive ability, and analyzed the measurement results. The following results were obtained. 1) The LBM of the U group was significantly higher (P <0.05) than that of the L group.However, there was no significant difference in body weight and %Fat between the groups. 2) In terms of the muscle thickness on the front of the upper arm, front of the forearm, and back of the lower leg, the U group showed significantly higher values (P <0.05) in comparison with the L group.Moreover, in terms of cross-sectional area of elbow flexor muscles calculated from the muscle thickness, the U group showed a significantly higher value (P <0.05) in comparison with the L group.However, there was no significant difference in skinfold thickness between the groups in any position. 3) In terms of thigh strength, comprising knee extension strength and knee flexion strength, the U group showed significantly higher values (P <0.05 or P <0.01) at all angle velocities in comparison with the L group. 4) The intergroup difference in knee flexion strength tended to increase as the angle velocity rose. The intergroup difference was within 24-29% at-60,0, and 60 degree·s-1,36% at 180 degree·s-1, and 39% at 300 degree·s-1. In terms of knee extension strength, however, there was no relation between the intergroup difference and the angle velocity, and the differences were within 21-31%. 5) In terms of upper arm strength, comprising elbow extension strength and elbow flexion strength, there was no significant difference between the U group and the L group at any angle velocity. These results suggest that LBM, limb muscle mass, and thigh strength, especially knee flexion strength at middle and high angle velocities, play an important role in winning in Sumo wrestling.
The compilation of the Dainihonteikoku Kendo-Kata has undergone 3 stages of “Sketch-Draft-Codification. ” In this paper, the original texts of these stages are compared and scrutinized concerning when, what and how amendments were added, and furthermore tendencies in the nature of the amendments were discussed, as well as its implications. In the evolution from the sketch to the draft, it seems the chief investigators and the investigators had question-and-answer sessions and exchanged views, and then, based on the results the chief investigators, re-examined the sketch to make amendments. For the purpose of organizing a unified Teikoku-Kendo-Kata transcending schools, organizing work is thought to have been encouraged by placing special emphasis on the basic concept, overall picture and comprehensive constitution of the Teikoku-Kendo-Kata. In addition, because it was governed by the chief investigators' mastery of the art of kendo, theory on techniques, and profound perception of the Teikoku-Kendo-Kata, the details of the sketch were not regarded as matters of particular importance. Consequently, in the work from the sketch to the draft, the Kodachi-Kata was settled on as not to be amended, and a total of 17 items, including 2 of the basic,5 of Tachiai and 10 of Tachi-Kata, as items to be amended. From the draft to the codification, through the deliberations of the Teikoku-Kendo-Kata Investigation Committee,6 amendments were adopted at first. Afterwards, as a result of the chief investigators' and the investigators' practicing the Teikoku-Kendo-Kata, minor differences became regarded as problems and amendments were added owing to the necessity of having more precise explanation for the sake of instruction. Finally, in the process of progression from the draft to codification, amendments were added for the first time to the Kodachi-Kata, and a total of 27 amendment items, containing 4 of the basic,4 of Tachiai,12 of Tachi-Kata and 7 of Kodachi-Kata items plus 6 items by the Teikoku-Kendo-Kata Investigation Committee's decisions, were added before release of the codification by the management office of the Butoku-Kai.