The “concept of a double-edged sword, ” which we often hear about in kendo and swordsmanship, is a symbolic reference to the sacred sword (Kusanaginotsurugi) of the three sacred treasures. The three sacred treasures themselves have very unique circumstances surrounding them, and the image of Kusanaginotsurugi, which is one of the three treasures comprising the imperial regalia, represents the “concept of a double-edged sword” and describes this most symbolically. The “concept of a double-edged sword”itself departed from the field of faith and religion in ancient Japan, and had another value system differing from that of the martial art. Then, in the Edo period, the “concept of a double-edged sword” was determined as a benchmark that symbolized the cultural nature of the martial art. Namely, that the “concept of a double-edged sword” passed through various changes during the medieval era, and it was the Kusanaginotsurugi, one of the sacred treasures, that represented this notion. This study aims to identify the circumstances surrounding the “concept of a double-edged sword” from the perspective of the three sacred treasures, paying special attention to the medieval era. In this research, the circumstances in which “the concept of a double-edged sword” came to combine with the martial art, and the subsequent directionality are clarified by examining the notions regarding the three sacred treasures in the medieval era. The contents are described as follows and are summarized for each period. (Heiancho Period or before) *The sacred treasures symbolized gods prior to the Imperial Throne, and without this structure, they could not symbolize the Imperial Throne adequately. In other words, a dual structure existed, in which the sword was a ritual utensil and simultaneously a ceremonial arm. *At that time, the structure in which the sacred treasures symbolized the Imperial Throne was not as significant as the role played in society. <Kamakura Period> *The samurai class represented by Genji and the Heike considered the three sacred treasures to be very important symbols of the Imperial Throne. The role this idea played in society became very influential. *Such tendencies were originated in the samurai's adherence to positions of the Emperor's military (Imperial army), because only the adherence affirmed their usage in military force. *Since only the Kusanaginotsurugi was lost among the three sacred treasures, this sacred sword conversely attracted more attention and was regarded as important; consequently, it began to be treated as a special object. Though the sword was originally a ritual utensil and a ceremonial arm, it came to be treated as an element of the martial art. < Nanbokucho/Muromachi Period> *The three sacred treasures of the Imperial House became common. *Symbolism without the actual existence of Kusanaginotsurugi began to appear.
Forty-one attributes that determine attitude, skill, and effectiveness of techniques, were recorded for 132 Judo contests, of which wins or losses were decided by HANTEI. A one-dimensional scale showing degree of importance was derived from these records based on the Bradley & Terry (BT)model. The estimation of HANTEI using 3 models that considered “only the most important item,”“summation of the degree of importance for all items,”and “summation of the degree of importance for selected items” was performed. The difference between the estimations with these 3 models and actual decisions were compared. The results are as follow: 1) Good estimation cannot be obtained from “only the most important item” model. Estimation using “summation of the degree of importance for all items” model followed. The best estimation was “summation of the degree of importance for selected items” model. 2) Only 7 to 9 attributes were important when doing HANTEI, although all models were used. 3) Effectiveness was a more important attribute than attitude and skill because many attributes of “not called but almost nearly called against situations/actions” had high scale values.
This study examined exercise intensity in a kumite bout of karate by estimating oxygen intake (VO2) from heart rate (HR) during a bout, and measuring blood lactate concentration (La) after a bout. It also examined the characteristics of the kumite bout as intermittent exercise by firstly dividing movements in the bout into 3: (1) attack and defense (2) preparation for attack and defense (3) suspension by the referee. Then, the movements were analyzed in terms of times, numbers of times and speed of the participants using a two-dimensional direct linear transformation method. Six male collegiate karate athletes aged 19.2±1.2 participated in this experiment. The following results were obtained: 1) Their maximal oxygen intake (VO2max), measured using a cycle ergometer, was 50.1±0.4ml/kg/min. HR and VO2at anaerobic threshold (AT) measured by the V-slope method were 106.7±27.1 beats/min (56.5%HRmax) and 28.4±4.9 ml/kg/min (57.5 % VO2max), respectively. 2) The average HR and VO2 during a bout was 160.7±8.2 beats/min (85.2%HRmax) and 72.5%VO2max, respectively. La measured within 2 minutes after a bout was 5.3±0.4 mmol/l. 3) The average time for attacks and defenses in a bout was 17.9 ±6.9 seconds, which was 10%of the total time of the bout. The average speed for attack and defense, preparation for attack and defense and suspension by the referee were 0.77 m/sec,0.51 m/sec and 0.49 m/sec,respectively. 4) There were no significant differences between the average times for attacks and defenses, preparing for attack and defense and suspension at 1.000-1.500 m/sec and 1.501-3.400 m/sec. Given the above results, we concluded that in faster movements in a kumite bout, there was no difference between the times for attacks and defenses, preparing for attack and defense and suspension. Therefore, the intensity of the kumite exceeded AT.
This study investigates the occurrence of injuries in collegiate athletes. Subjects were 26 karate athletes of the Fukuoka University Karate Team. The period of investigation was 6 months. When injuries were classified by body region, toe injuries accounted for the largest percentage (21.2%), followed by injuries to the waist (13.5%), and knee (12.9%). Most injuries occurred during sparring practice (37.4%).
Precise and profound analysis of the establishment of Teikoku Kendo-Kata and investigations into deliberations of the Kendo-Kata Investigation Committee revealed,-the following. The establishment process for the Butoku-Kai Kenjutsu-Kata, one of the springboard for the establishment of the Teikoku Kendo-Kata, was considered. Based an these considerations, experts from all areas of kendo were invited to participate and a cooperative structure was built that incorporated the collective wisdom of severa people in order to organize a unified Kendo-Kata capable of handing down the art to future generations. The Teikoku Kendo-Kata was established based on a comprehensive, step-by-step, detailed and painstaking process following the Butoku-Kai's rules and the Kendo-Kata investigation process. For the deliberations, the overall approach to the proceedings and the voting procedure were those prescribed in the procedural guidelines. Each of the chief investigators and other were authorized to participate in the establishment of the Teikoku Kendo-Kata and the exercise of his/her authority was guaranteed. In addition, it was emphasized that members were obliged to follow any organizational decisions arrived at by a majority vote. This demonstrates that proceedings were expedited democratically. Partial corrections and additions to the respective clauses, formats, and modifications and additions to the text were adopted according to the investigators' requests or opinions and approved. The chief investigators (regarding the deliberations on technique theory) recognized that issues related to theory had already been settled, and through their authority upheld the validity of the draft presented by the Chief Investigator Committee, maintaining that the draft was appropriate, accurate and based on rational principles. Accordingly, the deliberations on technique theory proceeded clause by clause under the control and authority of the chief investigators.