The purpose of this study was to examine whether maximum strength (One repetition maximum,1RM) in the bench press can be predicted by a submaximal strength test (6RM) in judo players. Thirtythree male volunteers were grouped as follows: a) light class, subjects belonged to the 60kg,65 kg and 73 kg categories (n=11), b) middle class, sudjects belonged to the 81 kg and 90 kg categories (n=11), c) heavy class, subjects belonged to the 100 kg and +100 kg categories (n=11). All subjects participated in a 7month training program. Prior to the training program, and every month during the training period, a maximal strength test was performed to determine the 1RM value. The best lift within the 1RM tests was defined as an individual result. The results were as follows: 1) 6RM and 1RM values increased in proportion to body weight: light class<middle class<heavy class. 2) 6RM and 1RM values divided by body weight (6RM/BW,1RM/BW) decreased exponentially with an increase in body weight (r=0.831, p<0.001, and r=0.757, p<0.001, respectively). 3) Although 6RM values correlated well with 1RM values (r=0.854, p<0.001), there was a much stronger correlation between 6RM/BW and 1RM/BW values (r=0.880, p<0.001). 4) We developed an equation for predicting maximal strength in the bench press based on the regression formula calculated from the relationship between 6RM/BW and 1RM/BW as follows: 1RM =0.8094×6RM (kg)+0.4195×BW.
The purpose of this study was to analyze teacher behavior in a KENDO class at “I” university. We adopted the learning program “Analogon”, using the characteristics of KENDO. In using this program, we expected the students to have fun while learning. We analyzed teacher behavior using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative items were time allocation of 4 major teacher behaviors and the frequency of interaction with students. A qualitative measurement was verbal analysis to catch the characteristics of the teacher. A learning product was judged from the date of formative evaluation developed by Takahashi et al. (1994). From these analysis, we found that students evaluated this class positively. Additionally, we found six characteristics of this teacher as follows; 1. He kept “structuring management”and mainly spent time “Monitoring” and “Instruction”. 2. He gave a lot of positive and corrective feedback. 3. He gave frequent individual attention. 4. He combined positive and corrective feedback about movement tasks. 5. He made interactive cycles with students to foster their understanding.6. He gave feedback regarding images about movement.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the positional and locomotive characteristics of kendo matches by inter-high school, university student, Japanese National Kendo Championship and high ranking (eighth-dan) kendo athletes. This study was conducted with specific emphasis on inter-high school athletic competition participants. Using the DLT method, traces of locomotive movement were recorded. These records allowed analysis of the spatial distance between two competitors (i. e. ma-ai) during their matches. Distribution curves revealed two main types of ma-ai. One of them was the distance when two athletes are in a sword-guard tangle (i. e, tsuba-zeriai). The other was the distance which enables an athlete to strike the opponent by taking one step forward and then to evade the opponent's strike by taking one step backward (i. e, issoku-itto-no-ma-ai). It was also possible to determine exact locomotor movement of offensive competitors when scoring an effective hit (yuko-datotsu). Results were as follows: 1. High school kendo athletes tended to use the central part (zone A) of the match area rather than the corners or sides. The percentage of time staying in the central part was 72.5% for males and 73.3% for females. Yuko-datotsu tended to be performed in the central part of the strike area, with almost 70.0% occurring in zone A. 2. Total time for tuba-zeriai-no-ma-ai in high school kendo athletes was longer than that for issoku-itto-no-ma-ai. The percentage of tuba-zeriai-no-ma-ai for all kendo athletes was 62.4%for males and 69.2% for females. The percentage of tuba-zeriai-no-ma-ai for high school kendo athletes was significantly higher than that of the high skill rank eighth-dan group (34.3%). 3. Average duration time of confrontation in issoku-itto-no-ma-ai was 3.7±1.8 sec. for males and 4.0±1.4 sec. for females, indicating significantly lower values for males in this group than those for males in the Japanese National Championship group (7.3±3.9 sec. ) or highly skilled eighth-dan group (15.1±8.1 sec. ). 4. Means and standard deviations overall for movement speed were 0.88±0.11m/sec. for males and 0.79±0.10m/sec. for females. Movement speed for high school males was significantly higher than that of the Japanese National Championship group (0.58±0.15m/sec.) and the high skill rank eighth dan group (0.39±0.09m/sec.). However, movement speed for female high school kendo athletes and the Japanese National Kendo Championship group did not show significant differences.
This paper presents the annotation to Teikoku Kendo-Kata, and discusses its contents by classifying and examining them from a technical point of view. In addition, it investigates incorporation of the annotation, through which Teikoku Kendo-Kata was first interpreted, by comparing respective explanatory notes with the ‘text’ and ‘notes’ of “Introduction to Nippon Kendo-Kata. ” A wide variety of styles, contexts, emphases and wording were used. This may have been aimed at clearly indicating the interpretation and basis of the draft Teikoku Kendo-Kata, in expectation of future adjustments and interpretation designed to enlarge upon the art, supplementing various interpretations by inserting explanatory notes to demonstrate and teach points requiring special attention, and to explain the reasons behind them. The explanatory notes to the etiquette ritual are thought to have indicated which items were considered to be criteria for etiquette, by expanding on etiquette as a whole, and on the gazing routine exercise, general practices, and behavior in the presence of the Emperor. Compared to the simplicity of the draft text, the notes to the basic set of disciplines are thought to have set out in a detailed and concrete manner those disciplines that essentially and fundamentally make up Kendo-Kata. The notes to the swordplay routine are believed to have explained in detail the techniques of handling or manipulating a sword in respect to the different parts of the sword to be used, i. e. the principles of swordsmanship.The notes to the technique theory system are thought to have taught the rationale in martial arts for using techniques such as ‘ki’ (spiritual energy), ‘metsuke’ (eye positioning), ‘ma-ai’ (distance in terms of time and space), (opportunity) and ‘zanshin’ (staying alert after a blow), and to have explained related points requiring special attention, together with their reasons. The notes to the technique system cover preparatory actions, the use of techniques and mastering of techniques, while the notes to other systems are aimed at providing more concrete descriptions in the text. As discussed above, in comparison with the simplicity of the text, the explanatory notes set out in a detailed and concrete manner criteria for etiquette, basic actions, principles of swordsmanship and the rationale behind martial arts. The same ideas as these first explanatory notes are, as written, carried over into the ‘text’ and ‘notes’ of “Introduction to Nippon Kendo-Kata.”
The purpose of this study was to determine characteristic of the “men” striking motion performed by top kendo athletes by comparing to lower level collegiate kendo athletes. It became clear as a result of analyzing the data that men striking motion is divided into two phases: Back-swing (first phase) and Forward-swing (second phase). 1. Top kendo athletes extended both shoulders and wrists, and maintained the angle of the body bending forward more than collegiate athletes. 2. There was no difference in the Shinai velocity or horizontal velocity of the center of gravity of the body between top kendo athletes and collegiate athletes. 3. Flexion velocity of the left wrist in the first phase and extension velocity of the right wrist and both shoulders in the second phase of top kendo players were faster than collegiate kendo athletes. 4. In the first phase, top kendo athletes raised both wrists more rapidly than collegiate athletes, after the left wrist moved to the bottom. 5. Collegiate athletes moved the wrist to the top and the right wrist moved forward at the last stage of the second phase. 6. Top kendo athletes extended the left shoulder more than collegiate athletes in the second phase. 7. Horizontal velocity of the right ankle of collegiate athletes decreased in the last stage to the first phase.