In a previous study we confirmed differences (deviations) in objective and subjective movements in the men (head region) strikes amongst members of a university Kendo club. In this study, we studied the objective and subjective movements in men strikes of 5 male members (Kendo rank ranging from 2nd dan [technical level] to 3rd dan average age 17.8 y) of a Kendo club at a technical junior college and 5 highly-skilled male Kendo competitors (Kendo rank ranging from 6th dan to 8th dan; average age 46.4 y). We utilized a high-speed camera to capture the objective movements of the study participants. For subjective movement, we mapped body movements of each participant in terms of point of maximum shinai (bamboo sword)movement and the point of impact, with the following results: 1. Large deviations in the objective and subjective movements in men strikes of participants occurred, regardless of Kendo experience or dan ranking. 2. For all participants, at the point of maximum shinai movement and the point of impact, the left hand was placed lower on the shinai and the right leg raised higher for objective movements than for subjective movements. 3. Individual differences were observed in how high the right leg was raised at the point of maximum shinal movement during objective movements. 4. Significant variation in subjective movement was observed among participants, particularly in how they moved the shinai-it was clear that each held their own idea of how the movement was to be performed.
I The purpose of this study was to compare: 1. bow length, 2. shape and size of grip 3. grip position between Shosoin round wood bows (15 samples) and Oyamazumi Shrine composite bows (9 samples). II Differences in shooting techniques between the middle of the 8th and 14th Centuries were also examined. 1. Relationship between drawing length (50,60,70,80,90 cm), grip position and angle of grip (angle between Blip and vertical line when in NOBIAI) was measured. 2. Angle of grip while students were in full draw was also measured. 3. Pictures of shooting scenes (Zanshin posture) in Japanese war roll paintings ware examined to determine how the left hand was used in those times. Conclusions from the comparison between bows from Shosoin and Oyamazumi Shrines were: 1. Length of the bow increased from round wood bow to composite bow. 2. Drawing length also increased. 3. Grip position became higher. Differences in Kyudo techniques between both periods ware: 1. Longer drawing arrow length in composite bow changed the way of aiming. 2. Techniques of HOOZUKE and MUNAZURU started after the change to drawing longer arrows. 3. Three pictures from two different kinds of War roll paintings made in the beginning of 13th Century described Tsunomi (Tenouchi) work were found. 4. Reason of changing grip position for the composite bow was to adjust the angle of bow grip. If the same position as a round wood bow was used, to twist the bow in HANARE became difficult. Mobility of the left-hand wrist towards TSUNOMI direction became smaller when the wrist bent too far downwards. The change in bows design not only producced progress in bow efficiency but also in shooting techniques during the 13th Century.