Study of the history and meaning of dan and kyu grades is one key to the essential character of Budo. Using this idea we began research into the origin of the dan grade system in Shogi, during the Edo period of Japanese history. The dan grade system in certain Kenjutsu and Jujutsu schools where comparable systems existed. For our final reseach we studied the grade system of Judo in the context of the clear intentions established by Jigoro Kano, and we considered how both kendo and kyudo have adopted grading systems and their meaning. Results were as follows: 1. There were 9 dan grade steps in Shogi at the beginning of the 18th Century. A Shogi player could be promoted to the next grade if he won a game against Iemoto, the top authority and 9th dan holder. Only Iemoto was permitted to hold 9th dan. 2. The Jigenryu of kenjutsu school established its own dan grade syustem from 1st to 4th dan at the begininng of the Edo era in order to keep the students motivated. The Tenjin-shinyoryu Jujutsu at the end of the Edo era established 3 dan grade steps: sho dan, chu dan and jo dan. Both systems had similar policies for dan promotion, requiring length of training and technical skills in kata. Also intangible factors such as being of good character, and not aggressive, but with a determined spirit. The system at that time had only a few 3 or 4 dan grades and there was a long time between promotions, and so students could eventually lack motivation. 3. Jigoro Kano, the founder of the Kodokan, established the dan grade system in Judo from 1st dan upwards (without an upper limit), with kyu grades from 5th to 1st, because he disagreed with the traditional grading system and its excessively long intervals to the next grade. He allowed students who had reached 6th dan to teach Judo, and then encouraged study more deeply into the heart of judo before arriving at 10th dan or Shihan. The other purpose of establishing the dan grade system was to stabilize the organization on a firm financial footing. The Dai Nippon Butokukai, established in 1895 in Kyoto, adopted the dan grade system for Judo and kyu grade system for Kendo which was used in Tokyo Police. In 1917, the Butokukai adopted the dan and kyu system for both Judo and Kendo, then in 1923 also adopted the dan and kyu system for Kyudo. 4. The dan and kyu grade system used today in Judo examines students for promotion up to 6th dan on points obtained in competitions and on their performance of kata. Above 6th dan are judged on their depth of knowledge and their contribution to judo. The grading system in Kendo examines skills in competitions and kata and there is a written test in addition. Correct posture and being able to use a sword correctly are considered to be more important than winning in the examining matches for promotion. Fees for promotion are used for further development of the organization.
The purpose of this study was to define simultaneous refereeing, in which “waza” is evaluated by a referee and two judges at the same time, and to clarify views on waza evaluation judged by this method, by administering a questionnaire to university Judo players and official referees of the All Japan Judo Federation. Findings: 1. Contestants have a more favorable view of their waza evaluation by simultaneous refereeing. They are confident in their points and attain a visual advantage in the contest. 2. Referees had a feeling of no visual advantage by this method when they missed making immediate evaluations. They tended to avoid giving the bad impression of controlling the contest, for fear of not making a fair and just decision. 3. Both contestants and referees consider that simultaneous refereeing prevents “ambiguity” in waza evaluation with active participation of referees, and the judgment becomes more impartial as a result. However, involvement of referees in evaluating judges leads to an unfair feeling of judgment, which referees and judges consider is a disadvantage of the method. 4. Evaluating some wazas, that are not well observed by referees are considered unfair in simultaneous refereeing by judges and referees, however contestants do not feel so. 5. Judges tend to think that the referee's concentration on the contest declines and mutual collaboration between judges deteriorates in simultaneous refereeing. Many contestants consider the quality of refereeing will improve by this method. 6. Efficiency, approval and introduction of simultaneous refereeing is accepted among contestants. Comparatively judges have a tendency toward a negative opinion of this method.
A study was carried out to investigate the effect of long-term practice of “Rei-ho” (: way of courtesy) on psychological characteristics in Junior High School students. Official and orthodox manners of “sei-za” (: way of sitting on the floor-Japanese style), “moku-so”(: meditation), “ritsu-rei” (: bow performed while standing), “za-rei” (: bow from “sei-za”) and “son-kyo” (: squatting posture at the beginning of a Kendo match or practice) were included during the period of “Rei-ho” practice to learn mental toughness and the spirit of Kendo. The level of anxiety and psychological competitive ability during the year, estimated using the “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form” and “Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability for Athletes”test, were compared between the “Rei-ho” practice group and a control group.Results: 1) The level of anxiety after the practice period (6 months) was significantly lower in the “Rei-ho”practice group than in the control group.2) After the practice period, measurement of psychological competitive abilities indicated concentration and relaxation capacity in the “Rei-ho” practice group were maintained more than in the control group.These results suggest that the active practice of “Rei-ho ” closely influences the level of anxiety and psychological competitive ability.
Measurement of mental capability and psychological character in Japanese National Karate-do qualifiers was made using “Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Abilities for Athletes (DIPCA.3)” and “Ego Attitude Scale (EAS)”. Results were the following. 1. Generally DIPCA factors for Japanese National Karate-do qualifiers showed higher scores than other sportspeople. However Japanese National Karate-do female players “relaxed capability” showed a comparatively lower score than average. 2. DIPCA factors for International Karate-do qualifiers showed higher scores than national qualifiers for other sports, however Japanese National Karate-do qualifiers had the same score level as International qualifiers for other sports. 3. Compared to Asian Championship participants, World Championship participants showed higher scores in “confidence” factors, such as “concentration” and “confidence”. Higher scores were also found for “strategy capability” factors, such as “decision”, “prediction power” and “judgment”. 4. The main EAS factor influencing the DIPCA factor “prediction power” was “maturity nature”. The EAS factor most influencing the DIPCA factor “judgment” was “rationality”. The above results are discussed from the viewpoint of Transactional Analysis.
Effect of multimedia utilization, produced for Elementary School children on “issokuittou-no-maai” skill acquisition, was studied by analyzing the improvement in spatial distance between a player and their opponent. Kendo lessons about “maai” for Elementary School children (10.5±1.3 years old) were carried out 7 times in 2 months. After completion of the lesson period, the children were divided into two groups, a regular attendance group (n=12) and an irregular attendance group (n=14), according to attendance frequency. The multimedia material, utilized auxiliary to each lesson, was composed of still and moving pictures. Line segments and letters were edited and digitally encoded. As a result, the coefficient of variation, calculated from the spatial distance in issokuittou-no-maai before the lesson period, became smaller in the regular attendance group after the lesson period. This result suggests that learning issokuittou-no-maai is possible for Elementary School children with multimedia utilization. The relationship between multimedia utilization during the Kendo lesson and improvement in issokuittou-no-maai skill level is discussed.