A portion of the supplementary description of “Fourth Kata for Tachi” leading up to the AI-CHUDAN form (both protagonists with swords raised to middle level posture) of Kendo Kata, Japan found in “Kendo Training Course Documents” has been deleted. The phrase “move forward in three relatively small steps” affects the subsequent content of the Kata in terms of rationale relating to distance maintained between protagonists. In other words, the deletion presents not only a problem relating to overall textual expression, but a far greater problem relating to the resulting omission of an essential element of the Fourth Kata. In this regard, using as many instructional texts relating to Japanese Kendo Kata as possible as reference material, I present below an evaluation of the deleted segment, insofar as it influences the Fourth Kata. The concept of sword-to-sword contact (KIRI-MUSUBI) in the form of a simultaneous attack by both protagonists (AI-UCHI) is the result of “the concept, promulgated in traditional sword techniques, of a frontal, vertical cut executed simultaneously by both protagonists derived from recombination of sword-to-sword contact techniques arising from either a descending, diagonal cut executed from the HASSO posture (with the sword held at the side of the head) or an upward diagonal cut from the WAKI-GAMAE (with the sword held low to the side) to produce sword-to-sword contact (KIRI-MUSUBI) in the form of a simultaneous, direct, vertical, frontal attack made by employing a large, expansive cutting motion with both protagonists engaging in fierce combat with an equal degree of confidence.” Considering the characteristics of posture together with footwork, the three steps forward must inevitably be relatively small to produce a wide gap between the protagonists. In addition to this, taking into overall consideration the fact that the technique employs a large, expansive cutting motion, the original form of sword-to-sword contact and vertical frontal cut, the footwork and distance traversed in a simultaneous attack by both protagonists (AI-UCHI), the retreating steps of the attacker (UCHIDACHI) in a situation with both protagonists in the AI-CHUDAN posture (both protagonists with swords raised to middle level posture) and safety considerations, it is clear that, since great care must be taken in establishing on appropriate distance between the protagonists, the three advancing steps must be relatively small to ensure a wide intervening gap. The deletion from the supplementary description in “Kendo Training Course Documents” is not merely a textual style related revision. That is to say, deletion of the elements “advancing in three small steps,” “making a frontal, vertical attack from a distance employing a large, expansive technique, ” and “using sword-to-sword contact (KIRI-MUSUBI) in the form of cuts executed by both protagonists simultaneously” not only clouds the rationale relating to distance maintained between protagonists but also in effect impedes transmission of Nippon Kendo Kata in correct form. The above illustrates that supplementary descriptions should be “advance in three relatively small steps, step in on the right foot and make a direct, frontal attack using a large, expansive cutting movement thereby producing simultaneous sword-to-sword contact.”
To determine the daily energy requirement of an elite female judo athlete before and after competition, total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labeled water technique over a 7-d period, for a-52kg female Japanese national team judo athlete [23 years,158cm]. Energy intake (EI) was also measured using a self-reported 7-d or 3-d weighed dietary record. TEE was 3004kcal/day and 2594kcal/day, and El was 2275kcal/day and 3100kcal/day in before and after competition, respretively. From energy balance (EB) and changes in body weight, adjusted-El (A-EI) was estimated during the preparation for competitionperiod. One benefit of A-EI is that it enables judo athletes successfully manipulate their ET and make cut-off weight for competitions, without compromising health or performance.