The purpose of this study was to develop a scale evaluating the psychological skills for judo players (PSJP). In a preliminary study during summer 2013, a questionnaire consisting of 60 items to evaluate the PSJP was developed based on the twelve subscales of “Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Ability for Athletes” (Tokunaga and Hashimoto, 2000). In the main study during fall 2013, an exploratory factor analysis (principal factor method, promax rotation) was conducted using the questionnaire data obtained from 369 Judo players (junior high school = 95, high school = 90, college = 89, adult = 95). The reliability and validity of the scale were estimated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and construct validity, respectively. The exploratory factor analysis revealed that the scale had four subscales: tactical thinking ability, practice desire, receptivity of others, and support of others. Each subscale showed satisfactory reliability coefficients. In addition, significant correlations were observed between each subscale overall scale in order to verify construct validity. Results of covariance structure analysis showed that the factor analysis model of PSJP fitted the data moderately (GFI = .88, AGFI = .85, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .07). Then, the relationship between PSJP and the competitive results of participants were compared using the scale. Participants with high competitive results had significantly higher scores on tactical thinking ability, practice desire and support of others than participants with low competitive results. Consequently, the developed scale PSJP appeared moderately reliable and valid.
This study aimed to identify differences in foot techniques and waist movements in both attack initiation and striking among expert, intermediate, and novice kendo practitioners. The following observations were made concerning suri-ashii and fumikomi-ashiii : 1. Suri-ashi-No significant differences in waist movements were found during both the attack initiation and striking phases among all skill levels. 2. Fumikomi-ashi-Experts displayed less vertical waist movement than other skill levels when stepping in the attack initiation phase. 3. Fumikomi-ashi-Experts moved forward more efficiently than the other skill levels when in the striking phase. isuri-ashi : The technique of keeping both feet on the floor and moving towards the opponent in a sliding manner. iifumikomi-ashi : The technique of stepping strongly with the right foot during the striking phase.
For the purpose of conducting safe and productive judo classes at all student skill levels, our research team tried to construct new, effective and logical “prompts to use a technique” as educational tools. A “prompt” refers to a movement that occurs before the use of a technique and is considered a valid condition for the easy use of the fundamental nage-waza throwing techniques in judo. Of the basic throwing techniques covered in junior high school judo classes, we selected prompts in which 1) the right hand (tsuri-te) is moved, 2) which rotate the opponent to the right, and 3) connection to the next technique is made from a foot technique. These three movements are easily linked to a technique and they are frequently used in free practice (randori) during a judo class. The techniques used were all right-handed and applied from only the right side: the full hip throw (o-goshi), body drop (tai-otoshi), lifting and pulling hip throw (tsuri-komi-goshi), back carry throw (seoi-nage), small inner reap (kouchi-gari), big inner reap (ouchi-gari), and the big outer reap (osoto-gari). However, the arrangement of the techniques for the “prompts” constructed here, as well as posture and execution, advanceing or retreating movements, breaking balance and body movements, represent only one example and there is ample room for improvement and expansion.