This study aimed to examine how kendo lessons in PE, with a repeating pattern of “task-oriented games” and “skill-up drills and games”, would influence students’ perceived physical competence, their formative evaluation of the lessons, and their improvements in skills and thinking abilities.
The subjects in this study were 70 students from two 2nd year junior high school classes. The lessons mainly consisted of phased learning of understanding and practising how to create opportunities to strike while working in pairs, and creating their own ways of attacking based on basic tactics introduced in pairs and groups.
As a result, analysis of perceived physical competence showed that there was a significant improvement after the lessons were completed. The students’ also gave positive feedback about the lessons in the formative evaluation sheets. Furthermore, analysis of the task in which students had to write down their own ways of attacking showed that all the students could develop basic tactics and could create their own ways of attacking. This proves that their thinking abilities were improved. Furthermore, the results of the assessment of their skills proved that most students improved their skill levels in the target areas.
The formation of vassals and official positions was established during the rule of the second Shogun, Hidetada Tokugawa. Feudal daimyō who supported the Tokugawa feudal system were classified into three groups: Shinpan, Fudai, and Tozama. The change of rank, curtailment of land, and forced relocation of feudal daimyō were frequently enforced during this period.
This paper focuses on the role of the formation of Jikishin Ryū Judo in the Matsue clan by reinvestigating salary documents from the relocated first Matsue clan chief to the seventh.
During the early Edo period, Jikishin Ryū Judo was used in the Matsue clan for both military and political purposes. Then, during the middle and late Edo period during the time of Harusato (1751-1818), the seventh Matsue clan chief, vassals who practiced Jikishin Ryū Judo were ranked higher and began to be put in charge of more official duties.
In the Matsue clan, the Inoue family established a central organization for judo as a martial art, and it was also used for education and household management.
Only a few historical studies have examined Japan’s martial arts during the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945. Those studies that do exist tend to focus on the controversy surrounding “sengika,” or the militarization of martial arts. Extant research has documented that sengika was recommended by the Martial Arts Promotion Committee (MAPC), which was instituted by the government as an advisory body in December 1939.
Previous research indicates that the commissioners of the MAPC were not universally enthusiastic about sengika. The purpose of this study is to delineate the process by which internal opposition to sengika was transformed into support on the committee.
This research has yielded the following results: the commissioners originally critical of the sengika came to concur that martial arts could have useful military applications. They emphasized the combative effectiveness of martial arts that is not evident in sport-oriented practices, and aimed to distinguish between the martial arts and sports with the intention of protecting the uniqueness of Japanese martial arts. This stance, however, prevented them from offering a protest against sengika.
One area for further investigation is why those officials intent on preventing the Westernization of martial arts (making them into sports) chose to make the combative effectiveness of martial arts their central issue. Subsequent research on the role of martial arts during wartime will need to address in greater detail this effort to prevent the treatment of martial arts as sport.
Making a strike in kendo requires coordination of the upper and lower limbs, and this skill requires a lot of time to acquire correctly. This study aims to design a modified coaching method and investigate its short-term learning effect in kendo novices. Sixteen healthy male college kendo novice students were randomly divided into two groups: conventional form (C-KN) and modified form (M-KN). Each group received instruction in shōmen-uchi (men strike) from a kendo teacher. The strikes of both groups were compared and the main findings were as follows: temporal subtraction of the men strike and fumikomi-ashi (stamp of the front foot when making a strike) was significantly smaller in the M-KN group than in the C-KN group (p < 0.01). The floor reaction force was significantly larger in the M-KN group than in the C-KN group (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the modified coaching method has a stronger effect on students’ ability to learn than the conventional coaching method.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the origins of the modern kata in karate-do by examining the 15 kinds of kata, or forms, described by Gichin Funakoshi in his major study that appeared in three volumes: Ryūkyū Kenpō Karate (1922); Rentan Goshin Karatejutsu (1925); and Karate-dō Kyōhan (1935), in which the term “toudi” was changed to “karate”.
The kata are divided into three phases: “initial movement”, “development of technique”, and “closing movement”. The first and last of these phases are most important when trying to understand the similarities and differences in terms of movements, and when seeking to comprehend the styles of, and transitions in, kata.
When demonstrating karate-do, the principle of “begin with rei; end with rei” was established by adapting modern Japanese educational manners to both the “initial movement” and “closing movement”. The presence of onlookers at a demonstration had a particularly significant effect not only on these two phases, but also on the transformation of the symbolic movements made. One may therefore conclude that karate-do was transformed into a new system of techniques. The influence of modern physical education can be seen in the concept of group practice, in the way performers occupy a space and stand to attention, and in the teaching method involving the giving of orders to performers.
It is clear that Funakoshi’s system was not modeled on any Chinese exemplar. He makes no reference to Chinese martial arts and manners in his 15 kinds of kata, nor is there any mention of these three phases of kata in the Bubishi, a study of Chinese martial arts that was widely known in Okinawa during the Taisho and Showa eras.
For these reasons, we must conclude that Funakoshi based his karate-do on a Ryukyu style of karate that belonged to a post-Chinese culture, and founded it to promote modern physical education and Japanese martial arts.