The purpose of this study was to investigate motivational factors related to visually-impaired athletes practicing judo. It intended to clarify the reason why visually-impaired judo practitioners continue training in judo compared to their normal sighted counterparts.
The subjects were 38 male visually-impaired judo athletes aged 19-62 who participated in the All Japan Blind Judo Championships (the visually-impaired judo athlete group). A control group was formed made up of 38 male sighted judo players who were systematically drawn from prior research. Subjects were asked to answer a questionnaire containing 21 items related to possible reasons for continuing to do judo, such as, “character development”, “positive feelings”, “improving physical fitness”, “improving mental condition”, “attraction to martial arts”, “personal goals”, and “recreation”.
Four factors were extracted from the sighted judo player group but five factors were extracted from the visually-impaired judo athlete group. Four of the factors—“positive feelings”, “personal goals”, “character development” and “improving physical fitness”—were common to both groups. Factors unique to each group were “sociability” in the visually-impaired judo athlete group, and “Jita Kyōei” in the control group.
The results of a simple comparison show that the scores for “fun”, “future goals” and “popular” of the visually-impaired judo athlete group were significantly higher than that in the control group (p<0.01). The “increasing health” score of the control group was significantly higher than the visually-impaired judo athlete group (p<0.05).
In summary, this study indicated similarities and differences in the reasons for continuing judo in visually-impaired and sighted judo players. It seems that “fun” and “sociability” are more important factors for continuing judo among visually-impaired judo athletes compared with sighted judo players.
This study focused on the fact that the long-term practice of sports is effective for maintaining and improving psychological abilities related to quality of life (QOL) and health, and examined the relationship between Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL), Sense of Coherence (SOC), and resilience in long-term judo practitioners. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey three times, and were able to collect data on 196 people. We then compared the collected data with the national HRQOL average and carried out a covariance structure analysis on the collected data.
Analysis of the collected data revealed that the HRQOL and SOC of long-term judo practitioners were significantly higher (p < .05), especially in older participants and in those with more years of practice (p < .01 and p < .001, respectively). When comparing the HRQOL of long-term judo practitioners with the national average, it was found that general health perceptions and vitality were significantly higher for the former (p < .05, p < .01, p < .001). As a result of examining the relationship between HRQOL, SOC, resilience, and state of practice using a covariance structure analysis, we found that HRQOL was more significantly (p < .01) influenced than SOC and that SOC was significantly (p < .001) influenced by age. Moreover, all indicators showed high adequacy for the model, with GFI = .918, AGFI = .880, CFI = .958, and RMSEA = .052.
Based on the results of the above analysis, we found that the HRQOL of long-term judo practitioners generally tended to be higher. Since SOC was related to age and amount of experience, it suggests that the long-term continuation of judo practice is effective for improving SOC. Additionally, since HRQOL is influenced by SOC, which in turn is affected by age, the long-term practice of judo may be effective for maintaining and promoting health.
The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges in conducting budo education in junior high schools through a quantitative analysis of the answers to an open-ended question obtained from physical education teachers. A questionnaire survey was given to 1,066 physical education teachers who are working at junior high schools, which were randomly selected from a list of all public junior high schools in Japan. A total of 302 responses were received between the end of November and the end of December 2014. The responses of the 269 respondents who answered the open-ended question about challenges of teaching budo in junior high schools were analyzed. The main results are as follows:
1.The biggest challenge was related to budo equipment, followed by facilities.
2.The most common category appearing in the answers was “equipment”, which coincided with categories such as “facilities”, “instructor”, and “kendo”. The second most common category was “teaching method”, which coincided with “technique” and “instructor”; and the third most common category was “safety” which coincided with “instructor”, “technique” and “facility”.
3.The challenges were different depending on what type of budo is taught in the physical education budo class.
4.There were no differences in the challenges according to the format of the class or the teachers’ budo experience.
The results indicate that there are some underlying problems surrounding the conducting of budo education in Japanese junior high schools that are not influenced by the format of the class or the teachers’ budo experience. In order to resolve these issues, it appears that efforts should be made in a mutually complementary manner rather than addressing each problem individually.
Previous studies have suggested that trunk muscular strength is an important factor for the competitive ability of female judo athletes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of lightweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class athletes with decreases in peak torque according to increases in angle velocity. The subjects were 61 female judo athletes consisting of 28 lightweight, 17 middleweight, and 16 heavyweight class athletes without lower back pain. We used the CYBEX 770-Norm System with a Trunk Extension / Flexion Unit to measure peak torque during trunk extension and flexion. The peak torque was measured at angle velocities of 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 deg/s, according to the CYBEX TEF standard protocol.
The results we achieved are as follows.
1.Peak torque during trunk flexion at all angle velocities showed a tendency to be larger in the following order: heavyweight group, middleweight group, lightweight group. At an angle velocity between 30-120 deg/s, the differences among the 3 groups are significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). At an angle velocity of 150 deg/s, the difference between the lightweight and middleweight groups, as well as the difference between the lightweight and heavyweight groups, is significant (P < 0.01). However, the difference between the heavyweight and middleweight groups is not significant.
2.Peak torque during trunk extension at all angle velocities showed a tendency to be larger in the following order: heavyweight group, middleweight group, lightweight group. At all angle velocities, the differences between the heavyweight and middleweight groups and the lightweight group is significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). However, the difference between the heavyweight and middleweight groups is not significant.
3.In both cases of trunk flexion and extension, the index showing the change in gradient in peak torque according to the increase in angle velocity (the x coefficient of the regression line) lowered in the following order: heavyweight group, middleweight group, lightweight group. The difference between the heavyweight and lightweight groups is significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).
These results suggested that heavyweight athletes have a higher trunk strength but also the possibility of having a larger decrease in trunk strength accompanied by an increase in movement speed, when compared with middleweight and lightweight female judo athletes.