In France, the 1955 “law regulat the professor of judo and jiu-jitsu and the regulation of opening dojo” was enacted.
In previous studies, this law has been positioned within the legal history of sports as one of the main processes of establishing a sports professor diploma. However, judo gained legal support soon after its introduction to France because it was encouraged by the French Judo and Jiu-jitsu Federation (FFJJ).
Judo professorships were formed by Mikinosuke Kawaishi in Paris, and were structured to play the role of promoting the FFJJ’s judo dissemination policy, as “fake instructors” were beginning to appear. Therefore, the FFJJ has urged authorities to establish a diploma to regulate judo leaders since 1948. The FFJJ tried to apply the current regulations centering on the Kawaishi Method of the FFJJ to the national diploma regulations, and also to continue to take the initiative by constituting the judging committee that consists mostly of representatives of the FFJJ.
Legislation deliberations progressed immediately after the death of a Vietnamese wrestling instructor, which occurred in June 1954. The revised bill at the Republic Council in December showed that the majority of the members of the judging committee consisted of representatives of government authorities, and members of the FFJJ. The FFJJ opposed the bill that strengthens the government’s intervention, and the National Union of Judo Professors was established to protect the interests of its members. Thus, the law of 1955 was established, and it was decided that judo cannot be taught without a professor diploma. The majority of the judging committee would also consist of representatives of government authorities.
The 1955 law can be said to have been established in France as a means of making a living for judo instructors. Although legislation was promoted by the FFJJ, the government intervention was eventually strengthened. It can be said that this fact fixed the framework to make a living by teaching judo and created the foundations of the present French judo instructor system.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether male kendo players have an efficient shinai operation when striking kote-suriage-men, like with a center-men strike, and whether female kendo players have a shinai operation the same as male kendo players.
The subjects of this study were 44 university kendo players (22 male, 22 female), who have more than 10 years’ experience in kendo and have attained the grade of 3-dan or above. Subjects in each gender were classified into two groups (regular and non-regular groups) according to their experience in a team competition. All striking movements were recorded with a digital video camera. The following 10 items were analyzed; 2 items related to the shinai; 4 items for the greatest oshidashi movement (the maximum distance the subject’s left fist is pushed in the direction of the motodachi when raising the shinai); 2 items for the greatest furiage movement (the minimum speed of the shinai tip when raising the shinai); 2 items for the moment of the strike (when the subject hits the motodachi’s men).
The results of this study reveal that, when the values between males and females and between groups are compared and the relationship between the outcomes are examined, there are differences in striking methods between males and females when the physical characteristics of each are taken into consideration. In males, it is suggested that they strike by utilizing 2 types of lever together: pushing out with the left fist (type 1 lever) and using the shoulders as a fulcrum when raising the shinai (type 3 lever), which gives them great power when striking. The results suggest that this is a specific characteristic of the regular group. On the other hand, the results suggest that although females push their left fist when swinging up the shinai in a manner similar to males, they pull their right fist at the same time, but when cutting down they pull their left fist (type 1 lever) to give them great power when striking. In contrast to the males, these characteristics are not connected between groups.
This study used a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry （DXA） method to investigate how body weight relates to fat-free mass index （FFMI） and fat mass index （FMI） in Japanese female college judo players. 43 Japanese female judo players （age: 20.4±1.2 years） who belonged to a college judo club participated in this study. The whole-body fat-free mass and fat mass were measured to the nearest 0.1 g using a DXA method. The fat-free mass and fat mass obtained were divided by the square of the height （m） to give the FFMI and FMI, respectively. Pearson’s product-moment correlation was used to examine the association between body weight and FFMI, and also between FMI. Body mass was positively correlated with FFMI （r = 0.90, P < 0.01） and FMI （r = 0.95, P < 0.01）. These results indicate that when the body weight increases, it is accompanied by an increase in FMI among Japanese female college judo players.