It is said that quivers The Yugi and the Utsubohave same origins, but the Utsubo is unknown in time of its appearance. But, by the method of fixing an arrow to the bow string from quivers and state of the quiver fitting on one's body, we could say that, quivers The Yugi and The Utsubohave different constructions and origins, respectively. The Utsubo was found at south-west in China and it belonged to Lobo tribe who lived in this ditrict and it was probably the origin of Japanese quivers. We suppose that the Utsubo appeared around the time of transmission of culture from south-west in China to Japan. These reasons are brought by following items. 1. When archers fix an arrow, it is generaly moved in Vertical plane from the Yugi to the bow, but in the case of the Utsubo it is moved in Horizontal plane. 2. The Yugi was cylindrical type at first time, but as the time passed, it had lost its upper part and had progressed to open type leaving lower part. 3. The Utsubo has kept it's closed cylindrical type from beginning to end. 4. Japanesee culture was transmitted from south-west in China in early days of our country.
In this paper we will discuss methods of helping to prevent judo accidents. As one step, we have made the mat floor reasonably flexible, by placings under the mats of the judo hall, so that the shock to the human body can be lessened and ukemi can be easily accomplished, when a man is thrown down. We have measured the differences of the shocks to the human body, according to three kinds of ukemi-ushiro-ukemi, yoko-ukemi and mae-mawari-ukemi. Also we have evaluated the strength of shocks on the hips when a man is thrown by seoinage, haraigoshi, and okuriashibarai on the spring-placed judo hall.
Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima. The purpose of this research is to clarify the structure on Judo skills: The subjects are 5 beginners (white belt) and 10 trained Judoist (1 dan, black belt) of Judo club members in highschool. Games are performed on three different types; beginner to beginner, trained to trained, and trained to beginner. Throwing techniques are only permitted in this research. The data were analized on the method of Motion and Time Study by R. M. Barns. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Throwing Techniques: In the case of beginner to beginner, the winner uses mostly “Ashiwaza” , and shows high frequency in “Renraku-henka-waza” (change and junction of waza in individual person)and “Taionohenka-waza” (change and continuance of waza against opponent's waza)comparing to the loser. The tendency is rather evident in the game by trained and beginner. But in the case of trained to trained, both of them use “Renrakuhenkawaza” “Taionohenka-waza ” many times. 2. How to Move and the Directions of Movement: The beginner uses “Tsugiashi”frequently, and moves forward and backward, right and left directions. The trained shows high frecquency in “Fumiashi”and has tendency to move various direction. 3. Posture or Position: The beginner often shows “Jigotai” (self-defence-position), while the trained shows “ Henkei-Shizentai”(change -natural-position). 4. Standing Together (A Part of Grasping): Most beginners use “Hikite” and takes “Uwa -eri” (upper part of the lapel) and “Sode-guchi (cuffs). Trained group uses ” Tsurite ,“ grasp ” “Oku-er i” (back of the neck) and “Sode-guchi”, and shows violent “Kumite -Arasoi ”. 5. Position of Movement on the Contest Area: The beginners have tendencies to play games in the middle part of the contest area, while the trained have tendencies to play games around the outside area. 6. The basic motions come to complicate and have varieties as Judo skills are improved. 7. Judo skills make an appearance in a game situation based upon the factor of strength, and as Judo skills are improved, precision becomes a main factor, and then various skill patterns in the Judo skill system will be formed.
In order to investigate the characteristics of the cardiovascular function of Judoists, heart volume (HV), PWC170 and ECG at rest were measured in 22 Judoists of the first class and 26 student-Judoists of university, who were devided into a heavy class (above 90kg of body weight) of the first class (FH) or student (SH) and a light class (under 90kg of body weight) of the first class (FL) or student (SL). 1) Heart volume of FH(n=5), FL(n=7), SH (n=7) and SL (n=17) were 1,118.9+215.5ml,877.7±111.6ml,866.1+123.0ml and 767.7±96.1ml, respectively. 2) Heart volume per weight of FH, FL, SH and SL were 10.8±1.1ml/kg,11.9±1.9ml/kg,8.7±1.2ml/kg and 10.1±1.5ml/kg, respectively. 3) PWC170 of FH, FL, SH and SL were 1,535.9±221.1kg. m/min,1,302.3±134.6kg. m/min,1,265.7±212.1kg. m/min and 1,239.6±227.5 kg. m/min, respectively. 4 Mean values of the R Rinterval in FL (n=11) and SL (n=18) showed a tendency of prolongation in comparison with those of FH(n=11) and SH (n=8). In all subjects (n=36), significant correlation between HV and P, P Q interval were noted by 0.400(p <0.05) and 0.394 (p <0.05), respectively.
Innervation of Triceps surae muscle with the following methods: 1. The reinnervation of tibial nerve fibres was studied 401 days after it was resected, and myelinated nerve fibres constituting this nerve were analyzed with Fukuyama's method (Fan-wise split preparation). 2. Normal myelinated nerve fibres were studied in various methods from one day to 391 days. This report is based on examination of 6 dogs. The result obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The number of mylinated nerve fibres in the normal tibial nerve fibres is 11668(adult dog). These consist of 7129 Maximum-sized,2189 large-sized,1698 mediumsized, and 653 small-sized fibres. (2) The number of reinnervated myelinated fibres 401 days after its resection was 7422. These consist of large-sized (41.7%), maximum-sized (27.9%), medium-sized (20.7%), and small-sized (9.7%), fibres. The number of M. gastrocnemius of laterale is 409. These consist of large-sized (53.8%), maximum-sized (34.2%), mediumsized (10%), and small-sized (2%) fibres. And number of myelinated nerve fibres of M. gastrocnemius of mediale is 372. These consist of large-sized (45.2%), maximum. -sized (24.2%), medium-sized (20.9%), and smallsized (9.7%) fibres. These constitution showed the difference, compared with myelinated nerve fibres of skeletal muscle. 3. The number of myelinated nerve fibres of M. gastrocnemius of laterale after 391 days is 863. These consist of maximumsized (71.6%), large-sized (17.7%), mediumsized (9.9%) and small-sized (0.8%) fibres. And the number of mylinated nerve fibres of M. gastrocnemius of mediale is 1765 These consist of maximum-sized (62.8%), large-sized (22.3%), medium-sized (14.3%), and small-sized (0.6%) fibres. These percentage is different from the reinnervated nerve fibres. And showed the same result which Fukuyama and Ito showed in the nerve fibres of skeletal muscle experiments. 4. The innervated nerve fibres from almost perfect myelinated nerve fibres with myelin. But not all of the form of myelin observed were complete. 5. The number of normal N. tibialis at the 391th day was 13822. The mylinated nerve fibres in peripheral incresed rapidly in two months after birth, and at the 391th day they formed almost completely. At first, small-sized and medium-sized fibres are dominant, but gradually maximum-sized and large-sized fibres become dominant. 6. The number of reinnervated myelinated nerve fibres per one gram of mediale and 51laterale of gastrocnemius muscle is 120 in mediale, and 113 in laterale. 7. The number of reinnervated myelinated fibres per one gram of mediale and laterale of gastrocnemius muscle is 1193 in mediale and 1144 in laterale. This result shows that mediale is little more superior. 8. By the result of these acknowlegement, it is considered that the tendo calcaneus (Tendo achilles) is breaking when this tendo is twisted and pulled by non-co-operating innervating of gastrocnemius muscle of medial head and lateral head.
The school physical education modernized since the middle of the nineteenth century reached the level of that of the Western countries at the beginning of the twentieth century. This period covering half a century is call the Meiji Era. We can safely conclude that Meiji Era was a very important period for the establishment of the “ modern Budo ” in our country. The purpose of this thesis, therefore, is to describe how the Budo entered into the school physical education in Meiji Era.