Fritillaria camtschatcensis (L.) Ker-Gawl., "Kuroyuri" is a native perennial plant in Mt. Hakusan. To establish a method for in vitro propagation of Kuroyuri explants of bulbscales and leaves were cultured on the media containing plant growth regulators (hormones). NAA and picloram promoted the adventitious bulblet formation on the explants; almost all explants of bulbscales produced an average of five adventitious bulblets each on the LS medium (containing 3% of sucrose) supplemented with 0.1 mg L^<-1> of NAA or 0.1 mg L^<-1> of picloram. After transferring onto the medium without plant hormones adventitious bulblets grew to generate leaves and roots. A high concentration of sucrose (6% and 9%) had no stimulatory effects on the bulblet growth.
Bacteria passing through membrane filters of 0.2 μm in pore size were detected and isolated from cow dung compost decomposed together with rice husk. The bacteria exhibited polymorphism, existing as coccoid bodies of several μm in diameter just after passing through the membrane filter and as typical helical bacteria when reproducing in fresh medium. The helical forms of bacteria lost the characteristic filterable ability. As the culture proceeded, the cells of the bacteria were deformed and coccoid bodies were formed and the filterability was recovered again. The dominant strain preferred microaerophilic growth condition and formed tiny fried-egg colonies on MBB plate medium (a selective medium for mycoplasma). The morphological and physiological characteristics suggested that the isolated filterable bacteria could be Campyrobacter spp., though they have not been definitely identified. A strain of the filterable bacteria showed an antagonism to a pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani on MBB plates. No filterable bacteria has been found in other composts or soils except this matured cow dung compost.
The replication origin from pUC119 was inserted into shuttle vector pUFR043, which could be replicated both in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Escherichia coli. The constructed plasmid, pNASC, contained the replication origins from pUC119 and pUFR043, the λ phage packaging site, the partition locus, the locus conferring mobilization ability to the plasmid, the ampicillin resistance gene, the kanamycin resistance gene and the β-galactosidase gene including the multi-cloning site. The copy numbers of pNASC was much higher than that of pUFR043 in E. coli. X. oryzae pv. oryzae was more efficiently transformed with pNASC than with pUFR043. A genomic library of X. oryzae pv. oryzae strain T7174R could be constructed with pNASC. Since the hybrid plasmid from E. coli was much more efficiently recovered by use of this improved vector, this vector should be useful in investigating the pathogenicity and virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.