The series “Oral History of Broadcasting” has been conducting interviews with an aim to trace the history of broadcasting from the testimonies of people involved in broadcasting by adopting the research methodology of oral history. This paper features the broadcasting history of post-war Okinawa. After WWII, Okinawa came under the direct rule of the U.S. military forces and was totally detached from the mainland Japan in terms of politics, economy, and legal system, which was extended to social and cultural aspects. Broadcasting history was no exception: how it began and how it developed was entirely different from that in the mainland Japan. In the ruins where broadcast function had been completely lost, a radio broadcast service was launched from scratch by the U.S. military and gradually evolved into an established entity while being tossed up and down by the Japanese and U.S. governments as well as social landscapes. Here is a person who has been deeply involved in the process, experiencing each critical stage: Chosei Kabira, former President of Okinawa Hoso Kyokai (OHK) [Okinawa Public Broadcasting System].Mr. Kabira is a rare figure who has been involved in broadcasting all the way from the launch of broadcasting in the post-war period to the reversion of Okinawa to Japan.This paper focuses on how Chosei Kabira thought and acted at each phase as an individual broadcaster and what prompted him to do so, as an attempt to vividly elucidate the history of broadcasting in Okinawa.
Following the results of “Public Opinion Survey on Information and Media Use” held in June 2018, the author reports how people select media and acquire news and other information on political, economic, and social trends, amid concerns that the spread of the internet and social media services are creating a divide in the use of social information infrastructure.The following trends were confirmed by the survey. There is a huge gap between the youth and the elderly regarding the media platforms they use on daily basis, showing a generational divide in the usage of information sources. More than 80% of the respondents think “society today has too much information,” and young people are notably selective about information, saying, “I need to know only what I need to know.” Furthermore, young people show low interest in information on politics, economy, and society, with fewer information genres attracting their interests.Regarding information sources, television is used by people in a wide age range while social media services, from which users can selectively acquire information they are interested in, are overwhelmingly popular among the youth. The survey also finds a larger number of people trust TV news more than internet or social media news, but more than 40% cited “being edited” and “containing communicators’ intentions” as untrustworthy aspects of TV news. Meanwhile, “clear information sources” was the most-cited trustworthy aspect, which indicates that television’s basic function is being appreciated as it is becoming easier to encounter fake news on the internet nowadays.
This paper reports on the findings from the “2018 Nationwide Survey on Changes in the Japanese Language,” centering on the following elements.- As to a choice of collocation “kansei shidai ” or “kansei shi shidai ” (gorenraku shimasu) [(I’ll let you know) as soon as it is completed], “kansei shi shidai ” has been regarded as the standard, but the survey reveals an overwhelming majority use only “kansei shidai.”- Both “furuku naru mae ni ” [before it becomes old] and “furuku naranai mae ni ” [before it will not become old] have been considered acceptable, but the more than half of respondents use only “furuku naru mae ni.” The percentages of those responding so were higher among men and younger generations.- Regarding “okita ” or “okotta ” [occurred], ‘using only “okita ”’ was the most common answer.- For “Kaiketsu subeki ” or “kaiketsu surubeki ” [It should be solved], ‘using only “kaiketsu subeki ”’ was the most common answer.- Regarding the collocation of the auxiliary verb “mai ” such as “suru mai ” or “shi mai ” [not intend/likely to do so], the conventional idea was shushikei (dictionary form) should be used for godan katsuyo (five-row) conjunction verbs, and mizenkei (imperfect form) for other verbs, but the survey found most common usage for sa-hen (sa-row irregular conjugation), ka-hen (ka-row irregular conjugation), and kami ichidan (i-row conjugation) was shushikei.- The highest percentage of the respondents (more than half) feel more uncomfortable about “tanoshime teiru ” [I’m able to be enjoying it] (potential expression + teiru) than “tanoshin deiru ” [I’m enjoying it]. The older, the higher percentage of respondents answered so.
NHK launched a campaign titled “#ON THE NIGHT OF AUGUST 31st” last year (2017). This campaign series, which is linked to a website and social media, aims to listen to the voices of teenagers who feel depressed or have a sense of anxiety at the end of summer holidays, facing the start of a new school term. Part of the project, a TV program Heart Net TV + TV FOR THE SAKE OF LIVING #ON THE NIGHT OF AUGUST 31st won the Web Factual Prize and the President of the Italian Republic Special Prize at the Prix Italia, one of the most prestigious international contests in the broadcasting circle, in September 2018.The campaign was held this summer, too, where Heart Net TV played a central role. In its second year, the program not only upheld the campaign towards the end of summer holidays intensively but also opened a “2018 Summer Holiday: My Diary” page on its website and encouraged the viewers to post their feelings throughout the summer holiday season so that they could air out their frustrations and anxieties. It also loosely collaborated with “note”—an online content-sharing platform popular among the youth—in an attempt to make more people recognize the campaign. On August 31st, on the exact day of broadcasting, the program was live-streamed on the internet to reach younger generations, who had been becoming less and less interested in television. As a result, the campaign was able to create a “space where young people can feel safe and at ease” on the program’s website and twitter. It seems the project demonstrated one form of “solution journalism” implemented by NHK that strives to serve as “public service media.”