The issue of “orphan works”is a huge barrier in widely releasing and utilizing broadcast archives. Each broadcast program is comprised of a large number of copyrighted works, but there are many cases where broadcasters have to give up the reuse of works as they cannot process the copyrights due to uncontactable right holders. In the modern age, with a massive amount of information being distributed thanks to the spread of digital network technology, orphan works have long been a headache for those wanting to utilize copyrighted works, which is common to all genres, not just limited to broadcast archives. Under these circumstances, as the Diet passed the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) bills in spring 2018, which will extend the copyright protection term from 50 to 70 years after the death of the author, there are mounting concerns that the problem of orphan works may be protracted and aggravated.This series discusses and explores solutions for orphan works from the standpoint of promoting broadcast archives utilization. The first part of the series reports the gist of the Copyright Act amendment, international trends, and the current status of right processing for broadcast archives.
In May 1932, a year after the outbreak of the Manchurian Incident, 1.2 million radio subscribers across Japan received a questionnaire asking their preference on radio programs. It was sent by the Telecommunications Department of the Ministry of Communications.
This paper focuses on listeners’ expectations for radio broadcasts which were stated for an open-ended question. Their voices reveal that not a few respondents hoped for the relaxation of censorship and were against bureaucratization of radio business operation.These facts prompt two questions. One is why listeners could have such expectations for radio that had been under government control from the start and practically turned into a propaganda machine of the military and the government after the Manchurian Incident The other is how the Ministry of Communications and the Japan Broadcasting Corporation perceived these voices of the listeners.In search for the answers, the author overviews the relations between the Ministry of Communications, the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, and the listeners, covering the period from the commencement of broadcasting in Japan to radio broadcasts during the Pacific War. This examination will prove to be nothing less than the verification of discussions on the public nature of broadcasting.
The NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute has been conducting since 2013 “surveys on school teachers’ media usage” in order to grasp the media environment at school across Japan and to get a full picture of the use of NHK’s educational services such as broadcasts, websites, and events.In 2017, we surveyed individual teachers of upper secondary school (full-time, part-time, and correspondence courses). Following the June issue that reported key findings from the survey centering on full-time course teachers of science, social studies, Japanese, and foreign languages, this issue presents responses of teachers of science and social studies in part-time and correspondence courses.The survey reveals that the part-time courses’ media environment including internet access, computers, projectors, etc., is as good as that of full-time courses and that part-time course teachers use of videos such as NHK’s broadcast programs and commercially available DVDs more than full-time course teachers. Teachers’ utilization rates of NHK koko-koza (TV/radio school programs for high school students) and “NHK for School” (website providing educational content and information) among part-time course teachers were 31% for science teachers and 22% for social studies teachers. Meanwhile, those who have used any NHK’s general broadcast programs or NHK’s educational services including educational events account for 55% for science and 41% for social studies teachers.The media environment available for face-to-face classroom sessions of correspondence courses is almost the same as that for full-time and part-time courses, but its utilization rate is low. Meanwhile NHK koko-koza is much-used not only for classroom sessions but also for paper assignments and teachers’ preparation for lessons.Both part-time and correspondence course teachers use media off-class such as recording TV programs that may useful for classes at home. It is also found that many teachers are hoping to use media tools/content that can be beneficial for classes, with many citing tablet type devices as a necessary media tool to equip in the future.
The 2017 renewal of the Royal Charter—the constitutional basic of the BBC—brought a major change in the governance system of the British public service broadcaster. Its internal governing body, the BBC Trust, was closed, and the regulatory functions over the BBC were transferred to the Office of Communications (Ofcom), which became the first external independent regulator. With its scope of regulation expanding to the public service broadcaster in addition to commercial broadcasters, Ofcom headhunted Kevin Bakhurst, then Deputy Director General of RTÉ, the public service broadcaster in the Republic of Ireland, as Group Director, Content Media Policy, to oversee U.K.’s broadcasting institution and content. Mr. Bakhurst has a long career at the BBC, including prominent positions such as Controller of a news channel and Editor of the BBC’s main evening news News at 10. The author interviewed Mr. Bakhurst in London in February 2018 to explore how Ofcom would regulate the BBC and what changes it would make to differentiate its governance from that of the BBC Trust under the leadership of Mr. Bakhurst.