This paper reports the current status of young children’s viewing of TV in real time and of recorded programs, DVDs and internet videos based on the “Rating Survey on Young Children’s TV Viewing” held in June 2019. The survey was conducted over a week from June 3 (Monday) to June 9 (Sunday) targeting 1,000 young children aged two through six living within 30km radius of Tokyo. TV viewing time per day (real-time viewing) for young children was 1 hour and 3 minutes, viewing time of recorded programs/DVDs (time-shifted viewing) was 25 minutes, and that of internet videos was 16 minutes. Looking at weekday ratings and replay rates by 30 minutes, it is revealed young children engaged in both watching real-time viewing and replaying recorded programs/DVDs and online videos between seven and nine in the afternoon, which shows their viewing style is diversifying on weekday evenings as they combine real-time, time-shifted, and online video viewing. Many ETV’s programs were among the most-watched content, represented by “With Mother.” Some programs including “Anpanman” that were not rated high for the real-time viewing were popular as recorded programs or DVDs, and various titles and genres were watched by young children on the internet via YouTube and other sites. In terms of parents’ attitudes, the survey suggests they tend to feel more negative about online videos than TV programs. We compared weekday viewing habits of nursery school children and kindergarten children, which shows differences in peak times of TV viewing and in most-watched programs influenced by the difference in time use in their daily lives (waking up, out of house, coming home, and going to bed). Questions on the use of apps were newly introduced in this survey, which reveals 40% of young children used apps, mainly for replaying online videos and playing games.
NHK’s Educational Television (ETV) celebrated its 60th anniversary early this year. “Series: Sixty Years of Educational Television” comprehensively analyzes ETV programs by dividing them into groups. The third installment examines seven groups of programs: “youth,” “culture and liberal arts,” “art and performance,” “industry and economy,” “science and health,” “elderly and welfare,” and “news and other.” “Youth programs”, along with programs for preschoolers, had been mainly broadcast on NHK General TV (GTV) until 1980s, but ETV has increased the number of these programs since “block programming” was introduced in the 1990s. “Culture and liberal arts programs” have long-standing series such as Nichiyo bijutsukan (Sunday art museum) and Kokoro no jikan (mental health hour). In addition to them, various programs have been introduced since “educational and cultural course” were terminated in the 2010s. Since the launch of the channel, ETV’s “art and performance,” “industry and economy,” and “science and health” programs have been distinctive from those of GTV. Since the 1990s, with Japan’s population rapidly aging, ETV has increased the number and the hours of “elderly and welfare” programs. Likewise, responding to the needs of the times, ETV has also been broadcasting “news and other” programs that show the characteristics of the channel. This article examines the transition of each group of programs and wraps up the series by summarizing the characteristics of ETV programs and scheduling as well as its expansion into websites to discuss the roles of ETV in creating a lifelong learning society. in the future.
The first half of the paper explored Okuya’s starting point. He aspired to raise the level of popular culture by making full use of radio’s “guidance” ability. However, its “guidance” gradually became overlapped with the “guidance” that led the Japanese citizens to war as the axis of Japanese society found itself leaning towards the right like a landslide since the Manchurian incident. Both Kokumin Kayo [songs for the public], and Shi-no Rodoku [poetry recitation] were turned into the means of military and government propaganda. It was about six months before the break of the Pacific War when Okuya changed. Fed up with the tyranny of military personnel, Okuya “realized that we must not engage in any types of enlightenment activities at a time when such an irrational authority was repressing the people.” At the same time, for Okuya giving up “guidance” equaled to giving up radio. Thus, Kumao Okuya left the Japan Broadcasting Corporation in 1943. The second half of the paper reviews how “guidance” sought by Okuya changed its way. What is the “guidance” ability of broadcasting? The question Okuya had to confront is yet to answer even today.
Miki Matheson, Paralympian, Member of the Olympic Education Commission of the International Olympic Committee, Member of the Education Committee of the International Paralympic Committee (Japan/Canada)
As a member of the Olympic Education Commission of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and a member of the Education Committee of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), Miki Matheson strives to spread and promote the official IPC Paralympic education in schools around Japan. The Paralympic education aims to help children cultivate a mindset of respecting and live side by side with others. Ms. Matheson says this idea will remain as a legacy of the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games. After winning four medals at the Nagano 1998 Paralympic Winter Games, Ms. Matheson flew to the United States to study. She decided to leave Japan, where people with an impairment had to think about their options by process of elimination, to explore ways to become an educator to achieve her childhood dream. Ms. Matheson, who now lives in Canada with her family, says that in Canada—a country embracing multiculturalism and inclusion—individuals are recognised not by whether with or without impairment but by what they can. Regarding Paralympic broadcast coverage, she emphasises the importance of the roles of reporters and commentators with perspectives of persons with an impairment: the former would bring out athlete’s thoughts and emotions, and the latter would review athletes’ performance at the studio. Commentators should tell the audience how the Paralympics and an inclusive society are interrelated. The Paralympic education that Ms. Matheson engages in has designed a teaching/learning toolkit called “I’mPOSSIBLE,” which is an IPC’s official educational material. Ms. Matheson, who took part in the development of the Japanese version, holds workshops for teachers, making use of her experience as a licenced teacher. She hopes children can grow up with good self-esteem and play a prominent part in social change. Expecting the Tokyo 2020 Paralympics to serve as a starting point for this, Miki Matheson is determined to continue promote the Paralympic education in schools across Japan even after the big event to make Japan a truly inclusive society.
The 8th ESRA (European Survey Research Association) Conference was held in Croatia in July 2019, which staged 220 sessions on survey research. Among them, this article focuses on the latest cases of European countries that attempt to shift their survey methods based on probability sampling from conventional ones such as face-to-face interview survey to web surveys. First, the paper reports the case of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) of the United Kingdom. ONS presented the results of experimental surveys that spanned as many as nine years, with a goal of shift to a mixed-mode survey combining web and face-to-face interview. Regarding this shift as a “transformation,” ONS not only tried to change the methods but also reviewed the survey as a whole from scratch, including questionnaires and survey materials so that self-completed web surveys could also maintain the high quality of data. As a result, the experimental survey yielded relatively higher response rates than before, but some challenges were found including the young generation and certain regions which show limited effects of the new method. Meanwhile GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences of Germany conducted an experimental survey to compare a mixed-mode (web and mail) survey and a face-to-face interview survey as they had raised a question whether a mixed-mode (web and mail) survey can substitute a face-to-face interview survey. The result found a largely improved response rate and little difference in the sample composition and the answer results as a whole. Discussion on the best practice of survey methodology involved many participants. It shows how researchers, regardless of nationality, age, and career, were tackling common issues such as what is the optimum method for data collection. Participants brushed up their research and studies as they received feedbacks from others—ESRA provides such an atmosphere, which the author found a notable aspect of the conference.