This paper focuses on theories of wartime radio announcement. Preceding studies had a common bird's eye view: a virtuous “detached tone”–an announcer reading news utterly objectively in a cool manner–was replaced by an evil “screaming tone” emphasizing subjectivity that had been developed since the outbreak of the Pacific War. However, this study reached the following findings different from the conventional theory.
(1) “Detached tone” had been regarded as the optimum announcement theory for driving the people into the war since the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, and there is no difference from “screaming tone” in this context.
(2) “Screaming tone” has been considered to have emerged spontaneously from the breaking news announcing the opening of the Pacific War, but it is a fabricated legend; the theory was already established in the pre-war period.
This paper elucidates the above findings by delving into the minds of then announcers. Mobilizing citizens not by content but by the tones of speech–the author explores what challenges the announcers had to take on.
Typhoon Hagibis (Typhoon No. 19 in the first year of Reiwa) brought record–breaking heavy rains across eastern Japan. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued “heavy rain emergency warnings” in record–high 13 prefectures. It resulted in a wide–area disaster that left damages in 13 prefectures, collapsing 128 levees along 71 rivers, in eight prefectures, including Chikuma River in Nagano Prefecture and Abukuma River in Fukushima Prefecture.
The NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute held a public opinion survey of 3,000 residents in flooded areas in five municipalities: Nagano City (Nagano Prefecture), Marumori Town and Ishinomaki City (Miyagi Prefecture), and Motomiya City and Iwaki City (Fukushima Prefecture). The survey used a mail method. Among them, this paper examines the survey results from Nagano City.
In Nagano City's Naganuma district, which was flooded after the levee collapse along the Chikuma, 84% of the residents evacuated from home to evacuation sites and other places. They started evacuating at an early stage, with 59% of the residents having evacuated before the water overflowed the banks along the Chikuma.
When asked what had prompted them to evacuate, a number of respondents cited “disaster information,” “advice from people around them,” and “warnings from TV.”
62% percent of Naganuma residents were aware of the flooding risk of their houses from past flood experiences, flood hazard maps, and signboards showing expected inundation heights located in the district.
In spite that the levee collapsed before dawn, the district managed to minimize human damage. This is presumably attributed to the residents'awareness on the disaster risks and appropriate responses to disaster information.
The development of digital media usage at school has been observed through periodical surveys held by the NHK Broadcasting Culture Institute's. This paper reports on another learning environment–home, focusing on what digital media are used by junior high school students for home learning, by presenting the findings from a web survey and an in–depth interview of junior high school students and their mothers conducted from autumn through winter 2019.
The web survey finds that, among junior high school students who study at home, more than a half use digital media for home learning. Smartphones, tablet computers, and personal computers are used by many those students. By subject, they are mainly used for “English” (looking up English words, searching audio materials, etc.) and for “Period for Integrated Studies” and “social studies” (doing research using search sites and viewing video materials, for both subjects). Still, print media such as textbooks and reference books are used more than digital media as educational materials for home learning.
It is also indicated that junior high school students using digital media for home learning are more motivated to learn, more willing to devise ways to understand, and receive better marks than those not using digital media, and that students from households in which the mother encourages the use of digital media are more motivated than those whose mothers are passive about it.
The in–depth interview reveals that all of the junior high school students who have their own smartphones use these devices for home learning as dictionaries and encyclopedias, for looking up English words, etc. “Lesson videos,” on which former teachers or cram school teachers explain and demonstrate, are well received, with some students repeatedly watching them until they understand.
The survey and the interview were conducted before the temporal closure of schools across Japan because of the spread of coronavirus, and even among the respondents of the web survey, which are deemed to have a high affinity for digital media, not all of them used digital media for home learning. With growing needs for online learning due to coronavirus impact, and given that there are households without digital devices, more careful consideration is required for preventing the widening of learning inequalities.
The third and last instalment of the interview series with practitioners and thinkers of Engaged Journalism features Tom Rosenstiel, Executive Director of American Press Institute, a media thinktank in Washington D.C.
Mr. Rosenstiel is an author, journalist, media critic, and media researcher, known as a prominent thinker on the future of news. He co–authored “The Elements of Journalism” with Bill Kovac, an essential reading for journalism professionals and students. He was also the founder and director of the Project for Excellence in Journalism at the Pew Research Center.
In this interview, Mr. Rosenstiel discusses his thoughts on how newsrooms and journalists need to transform their cultures and practices to continue to fulfill their roles in this era of digital disruption, where news media are no longer the gatekeepers to information the public consume.
He highlights a critical need for creating additional values in news, by learning to listen to people's interests, needs, and concerns. He draws on his past research to indicate diverse ways of listening, for newsrooms to reimagine and reorganize their news coverage, and for journalists to broaden their lens in their reporting. Mr. Rosenstiel says engagement is a culture shift in the newsroom where there is mutual learning through continued conversations between the journalists and the public.
NHK conducted a public opinion survey (nationwide telephone survey) in March 2020, based on which this paper presents the public attitude on increasing international residents in Japan and on issues concerning the creation of a multiculturally convivial society with foreign residents. April 2020 marked the first anniversary of the enforcement of the revised Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act that had expanded the acceptance of foreign workers. The survey shows the majority, 70%, of the people are in favor of the increase in foreign workers in Japan. However, those in favor of having more foreign residents in their own communities stay at 57%. Even among the supporters of growing international residents, one in five are against the growth in foreign population in their own communities.
In terms of anxieties concerning the increase in foreign residents in their own communities, “differences in languages and cultures will cause troubles” and “the public order will deteriorate” are cited by many people. As to what they expect national and local governments to address, the most–cited option is “teaching the rules in daily lives.” Meanwhile, in regards to positive impacts they expect from the increase in international residents, “new ideas and cultures will be introduced” is most cited, and even of those against the increase in foreign residents in their communities, approx. 60% agree to certain positive impacts from the growth in foreign population.
As to foreign workers' “accompanying family members,” to live in Japan, only 33% agree that this provision “should be applied for a wider range of people by relaxing conditions,” but as many as 79% think national and local governments should provide children of foreign residents with sufficient learning opportunities of the Japanese language, even if financial burdens on the governments will increase.