The NHK Monthly Report on Broadcast Research
Online ISSN : 2433-5622
Print ISSN : 0288-0008
ISSN-L : 0288-0008
Volume 70 , Issue 9
Showing 1-5 articles out of 5 articles from the selected issue
  • Overflow of Small and Medium Rivers in Marumori Town and Flood Damage in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture
    Sayaka IRIE
    2020 Volume 70 Issue 9 Pages 2-19
    Published: 2020
    Released: April 16, 2021
    RESEARCH REPORT / TECHNICAL REPORT FREE ACCESS
    Typhoon Hagibis (Typhoon No. 19 in the first year of Reiwa) landed on the Izu Peninsula on October 12, 2019 and brought record-breaking heavy rains across eastern Japan. The NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute conducted a public opinion survey of 3,000 residents in flooded areas in five municipalities: Nagano City (Nagano Prefecture), Marumori Town and Ishinomaki City (Miyagi Prefecture), and Motomiya City and Iwaki City (Fukushima Prefecture). This paper looks into the survey results from Marumori Town and Ishinomaki City in Miyagi Prefecture. Among Miyagi Prefecture's municipalities, Marumori Town suffered the heaviest personal damage mainly due to the collapse of levees along three small/medium rivers that flow across the town. While 75% of the respondents were aware of the evacuation advisory, only 17% evacuated from home. May people remained at home because they did not think the area would be flooded. This clearly tells that it is crucial to inform residents of flood risks of small and medium rivers. Meanwhile, Ishinomaki City did not have any levee collapse, but approximately 10,000 houses were flooded by inland flooding. The survey finds about 50% of the residents anticipated the flooding of their houses. It appears that many people decided not to take risks to evacuate during heavy rainstorms but to wait for the water to subside, by sheltering themselves by “vertical evacuation” to higher areas such as second floor of the house. Such evacuation behavior was likely to be driven by the fact that the area had been often flooded due to the ground subsidence cause by the Great East Japan Earthquake.
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  • Announcers' War (vol.2)
    Junro OOMORI
    2020 Volume 70 Issue 9 Pages 20-41
    Published: 2020
    Released: April 16, 2021
    RESEARCH REPORT / TECHNICAL REPORT FREE ACCESS
    Following the first installment that reviewed the birth of “detached tone” in radio announcement and its status during the Sino–Japanese War, the second half of this paper discusses how “detached tone” was transformed into “screaming tone.” “At dawn today, December 8, the Imperial Japanese Army and the Navy entered a state of war against American and British forces in the Western Pacific.” The flash news reporting the outbreak of the Pacific War, read out by a radio announcer Tateno Morio, has been alleged to be the moment of birth of what is called “screaming tone” since back then and is regarded as the long–accepted theory even today. However, if you carefully study the statements of announcers before the war, you can easily see this is not the truth and is nothing but a myth. In the summer of 1941, when the outbreak of war between Japan and the United States was looming, announcers already objected to “detached tone” and started exploring “screaming tone” as a new announcement theory. The question is why a myth different from the truth was needed to explain the birth of “screaming tone.” This paper demonstrates the following: (a) there was a strong military demand behind the birth of “screaming tone”, (b) the tone requested by the military was hard to accept for announcers, and (c) they created a different type of “screaming tone” instead of the “screaming tone” expected by the military in which an announcer had to literally scream. A myth was needed to internalize the military demand. The “screaming tone” thus generated was not a blowing–the–bugle–type announcement. Tateno defined “screaming tone” as an “announcement that perceives the public with passion, unites and organizes their emotions, and mobilizes them towards one direction.” What kind outcome did it have? Among Miyagi Prefecture's municipalities, Marumori Town suffered the heaviest personal damage mainly due to the collapse of levees along three small/medium rivers that flow across the town. While 75% of the respondents were aware of the evacuation advisory, only 17% evacuated from home. May people remained at home because they did not think the area would be flooded. This clearly tells that it is crucial to inform residents of flood risks of small and medium rivers. Meanwhile, Ishinomaki City did not have any levee collapse, but approximately 10,000 houses were flooded by inland flooding. The survey finds about 50% of the residents anticipated the flooding of their houses. It appears that many people decided not to take risks to evacuate during heavy rainstorms but to wait for the water to subside, by sheltering themselves by “vertical evacuation” to higher areas such as second floor of the house. Such evacuation behavior was likely to be driven by the fact that the area had been often flooded due to the ground subsidence cause by the Great East Japan Earthquake.
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  • TV Art Sparkled in a Comic–Variety Show Hachiji da yo! Zen'in Shugo
    Kyoko HIROTANI
    2020 Volume 70 Issue 9 Pages 42-60
    Published: 2020
    Released: April 16, 2021
    RESEARCH REPORT / TECHNICAL REPORT FREE ACCESS
    The author has published analyses on “TV art” based on testimonies from a number of people involved, using a methodology of oral history. This latest paper focuses on the art of Hachiji da yo! Zen'in Shugo, a TBS network's live comic–variety show that took Japan by storm in the 1970s and the 1980s. In the program, whose main feature was comedy skits performed by the Drifters–a comedy group/musical band that enjoyed enormous popularity back then–its art including realistic large–scale stage sets and innovative props played a significant role. Based on the testimonies of Yamada Mitsuro, a designer who was almost solely entrusted with the design of skit sets, as well as art and direction staff at the time, this paper unravels new facts in the process of program making and tells the vivid atmosphere of the production site. As the author follows each week of making of the show in chronological order, the testimonies gradually shed light on the superb support of art staff that contributed to the creation of skit materials, the staff's endeavors to accommodate to changes requested until immediately before the performance to make the skits funny as much as possible, the passion of all the staff who worked hardest as a team on the stage to make the live broadcast successful. The Drifters consisted of five men, but the sixth Drifter was “art” that also played a leading role in the program and all the staff members involved. The author hopes recording the passion of people who devoted their lives to the show in the golden age of television will serve as a clue to shape the future of broadcasting that will soon celebrate its centenary.
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  • Hiroyuki INOUE
    2020 Volume 70 Issue 9 Pages 62-63
    Published: 2020
    Released: April 16, 2021
    RESEARCH REPORT / TECHNICAL REPORT FREE ACCESS
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  • Shoko SHIMADA
    2020 Volume 70 Issue 9 Pages 64-65
    Published: 2020
    Released: April 16, 2021
    RESEARCH REPORT / TECHNICAL REPORT FREE ACCESS
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