The Nationwide Diary–Method Survey on Cross–Platform Reach is a public opinion survey series that periodically studies the “reach” (percentage of people who view/use a given content or service at least once during a week) of contents and services provided by broadcasters such as TV and radio broadcasts, data broadcasts, time–shift viewing of recorded programs, websites, online videos, and social media, with the purpose of obtaining basic data for considering people's media usage and the future development of broadcast–related contents. For the latest survey, we had to change the survey method and period from last year because of the COVID–19 pandemic, and the survey was conducted in July 2020, using a mail method.
The reach of contents and services provided by broadcasters were classified into three categories: "real–time" (via broadcasting),"time–shifted," and "internet" (via telecommunications). “Real–time” reach was 92.0%, “time–shifted” 53.9%, and “internet” 40.5%, with the total reach (viewing/using any of the above) of 95.6%. Combining these three reach patterns, “real–time” (“only real–time” and “real–time plus other manners” combined) was 92.0% while “only non–real–time” was merely 3.6%. Among those in their 20s, however, the figures for reach patterns including “internet” were higher: 39% for “in all manners” and 20% for “only real–time and the internet,” with “only non–real–time” reaching 12%. These results show that how to contact contents and services provided by broadcasters has become more diversified, particularly among young people.
Countries started their first rounds of COVID vaccinations from late 2020 to early 2021, but the spread of the virus has not been curbed at the time of this report. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), confirmed cases around the world reached 100 million, and the number of deaths exceeded 2.2 million, by the end of January 2021.
How did media around the world cover the outbreak? What measures did they take to ensure they could continue reporting? What challenges did they meet? Following the February issue, this paper reports how global media responded to the spread of coronavirus. The authors examine the developments in different countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, as well as issues that emerged amid the pandemic that is likely to remain long after this crisis is over.
During the Pacific War, the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy established more than thirty broadcasting stations in the occupied Southeast Asian areas called “southern occupied territories.” Regarding the activities of these stations, NHK collected data and interviewed those concerned, and reported the findings in the 1950s. Nevertheless, it is necessary to conduct further investigation and verification based on various subsequent studies including research on the military administration in general. In this light, this three-part series starting from this month will revisit the history of broadcasting in the “southern occupied territories.”
The purposes of broadcasting in “southern occupied territories” can be categorized into three groups: (1) the transmission of information for the Japanese, (2) anti–enemy propaganda, and (3) reassurance for local residents, and this series focuses on broadcasts for local residents in the context of investigating the role of broadcasting in spreading the concept of Greater East Asia Co–Prosperity Sphere. The series will first outline the broadcasting in the territories (Part I) and examine the broadcasts aired in specific regions, the Dutch East Indies (Part II) and the Philippines and Burma (Part III).
This month's report concentrates on the process of implementing broadcasting in the territories, based on documents of the Army and the Navy as well as the Japan Broadcasting Corporation. It is revealed that broadcasting in the southern occupied territories was hardly discussed before the war partly because the idea of military occupation of Southeast Asia had not been conceived until 1940; it was only a few months before the outbreak of war that the Japan Broadcasting Corporation started in earnest the research on broadcasting status in the region.
It is also indicated that broadcasts started without thorough preparation; the framework of implementing broadcasting in the territories was yet to be decided even after the outbreak of war, with the debate on who–the military or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation–would be the administrator of broadcasting still going on. Furthermore, they had to discuss what content to broadcast and the constructions of radio stations at the same time. Thus, broadcasting in “southern occupied territories” was commenced without long–term plans.
The loss of Saipan, the Battle of the Philippines, special attack tactics, the defeat at Iwo Jima, the ground battle of Okinawa... With the worsening war situation that might spur a feeling of war–wariness to prevail among the public, radio undertook a mission of evoking hostility and maintaining fighting spirit of the nation. How did the Japan Broadcasting Corporation react to carry out this mission?
This paper focuses on the radio broadcasts in the latter half of the Pacific War, and specifically at the last stage of the war, using audio sources recorded on a hand–made apparatus by Eiichi Takahashi, who was studying telecommunications at a higher school then.
The author also examines how the radio tried to communicate to the people, when Japan's defeat became undeniable, what was the cause of the defeat and who was responsible, by analyzing newly–acquired materials.