The diatoms were growing profusely on the bottom mud or on thickly growing Spirogyra (green alga) along the shore of a river in Sulawesi (Indonesia) and identified as Navicula flabellata F. Meister. We investigated the valve morphology, especially the raphe by electron microscopy in addition to the valve shape and chloroplast by the light microscope. Since the shapes of the chloroplast and raphe are like Placoneis, we propose the following new combination, Placoneis flabellata (F.Meister) Kimura, H.Fukush. et Ts.Kobay. comb. nov.
To evaluate the reproductive ecology of Oenothera laciniata that is an invasive plant from North America, field observations and flower bagging treatments were conducted on flower bud at two populations. As a result, there was no significant difference in the number of seed productions per fruit among treatments. We found that the plants have auto-and self-compatible pollination before the flower opening. In the original country of Oenothera, its reproductive ecology has been well studied and then several species showed "Permanent Translocation Heterozygotes (PTH)". This genetic system produces the seeds that are genetically identical to their parent plant. Our results indicated that O. laciniata has been expanded its distribution area in Japan by the combination of auto-and self-compatible pollination and PTH.
We conducted phenological and phylogenetic analyses of the flowering of Illigera luzonensis (C.Presl) Merr. (Hernandiaceae), an endangered species native to Ishigaki Island (Okinawa Prefecture, Japan), Taiwan, and the Philippines. Illigera luzonensis from Ishigaki Island flowers only in the morning. Phenological analysis of the flowering of I. luzonensis in Ishigaki Island revealed that the plants bloom not in summer, as previously reported, but rebloom during spring and fall. Thus, populations of this species from Ishigaki Island and Taiwan differ in their flowering phenology, with the latter populations flowering only in the summer. Further, phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the individual from Ishigaki Island was distant from that in the Philippines. These results suggest that the population of I. luzonensis from Ishigaki Island has a unique lineage unlike the populations distributed in the Philippines and Taiwan.
Eleocharis tsurumachii is a rare plant growing only at Kasumiga-ura Lake, and usually treated as infraspecific taxon of E. tetraquetra. Its morphology of hibernating buds on underground stolons was observed: buds ovate to longovate with acuminate top, 3-7mm long, 1.5-2.0mm wide, enclosed in scales as same long as buds. These characters are different from E. tetraquetra, therfore E. tsurumachii should be treated as a distinct species.
Color of pollen grains of Chrysosplenium album Maxim. (s.l.) in vital conditions were yellow from Fukushima Pref. to north-east Gifu Pref., while those were white from south-west Gifu Pref. to Miyazaki Pref. These results are geographically so stable that color of pollen grains is valuable for diagnostic character between C. album var. album (white) and var. stamineum (yellow). Boundary area between var. album and var. stamineum is probably located around Gujo-shi, Gifu Pref., concordant with Wakabayashi(2001)'s recognition.
Dontostemon dentatus (Cruciferae), critically endangered plant in Japan, was found at Aso in Kyushu Island, and it had been 109 years since the specimen of the species collected in Kumamoto Prefecture last. It grew in a narrow area (70m × 20m) and 78 flowering stems were growing. The habitat of the mountain grassland on volcanic products was new knowledge for this plant.
Coccophora langsdorfii (Turner) Greville, the specialty of the Japan Sea was found in the inner part of Yamada Bay, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This is the first record of the species from Pacific side of Honshu, Japan except area of the Tsugaru Straits. Distribution of C. langsdorfii in Yamada Town seems to correspond to the route of the Tsugaru Warm Current, and suggests that the Sanriku offshore area of Iwate Prefecture is influenced by a particular confluence of the currents. Specimens deposited in the herbaria of the Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University (SAP) and National Museum of Nature and Science (TNS), and former records of C. langsdorfii suggest that this species is widely distributed along the all of the Japan Sea coasts.
Osmanthus insularis Koidz. (Oleaceae) was found from Tsu Island, Mugi-cho, Tokushima Prefecture. This is the second record of the species at the pacific side in Shikoku Island and these two new localities are positioned between the known ones; the southern part of Kyushu Island and eastern part of Kii Peninsula of Honshu Island. The distribution pattern was discussed.
A specimen of Angelica dahurica (Umbelliferae) collected at Ono-gahara (Ehime Prefecture) in 1950 was found. This is the first record of the species from Shikoku Island but it was unclear whether native or cultivated.
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