Several kinds of Japanese botanical terms have been used for epicalyx of dipsacaceous plants: 小総苞 (shou-sou-hou); 小苞片(shou-hou-hen); etc. Here we propose the new Japanese term for it as '被萼' (hi-gaku)because all of the existing terms were thought to be incorrect from an anatomical viewpoint.
The variation in the inserted position of flower-bearing stems of Carex multifolia was examined. It was revealed that this character was very variable in this species and that it was taxonomically significant. The flower-bearing stems were central and/or lateral, and two main types were recognized: the unit of tuft is not terminated by a central flower-bearing stem, i.e., the flower-bearing stems are lateral only (A-type), or the unit of tuft is terminated by a central flower-bearing stem (B-type). These main types were subdivided as follows. A-1: constantly a single flower-bearing stem inserted in the leaf axils, var. multifolia, var. toriiana and var. globosa. A-2: often a few flower-bearing stems inserted in the leaf axils, var. pallidisquama. B-1: flower-bearing stems always both central and lateral, var. glaberrima. B-2: flower-bearing stems usually central only but sometimes both central and lateral, var. imbecillis. B-3: flower-bearing stems always central, var. stolonifera.
Nuphar Sm. (Nymphaeaceae) is a genus of aquatic macrophytic herbs distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. Two species are known to occur in Kochi Prefecture in Southwest Japan, namely, Nuphar japonica DC. and TV. subintegerrima (Casp.) Makino. Both are rated as threatened species in the Prefectural Red Data Book, which ranked the former as Endangered (EN) and the latter as Critically Endangered (CR) (Kochi, 2000). Here, an assessment of their distribution, habitat and phenology in the Prefecture is presented. A total of 51 indiviudals at five localities were identified, and those are recognized as Nuphar japonica DC. and TV. subintegerrima s.l. (including the variety TV. japonica DC. var. saijoense Shimoda). In most populations, new leaf development occurred from February to April, with leaf senescence and dormancy occurring from August to March. However, late leaf development, as well as the complete absence of new leaf development, was observed at one locality. Upstream improvements for bank protection paved with concrete to river courses appear to pose the greatest threat to the persistence of populations in the Prefecture, with the risk of decline regarded as high at certain sites.