One of the most common complications after cataract surgery is a posterior capsule opacity (also called posterior capsule opacification or PCO). We have focused that Tropomyosin (Tpm) may be involved in PCO development. In this study, we generated Tpm1 conditional knock-out mice (Tpm1-CKO) and Tpm2 hetero knock-out mice (Tpm2+/-) and observed their age-related histological changes to investigate their role in lens development and differentiation. In addition, differences in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction were observed in wound healing models using Tpm2+/-. In Tpm2+/-, lens vacuoles were observed at 14 weeks of age. Lens, swelling and liquefaction of lens fibers were observed at Tpm2+/-compared to WT at 53 and 83 weeks of age. In the wound healing models, EMT change was suppressed in Tpm2+/-compared to WT. At Tpm1-/-, the lens was small and abnormal fiber differentiation was observed from 1 week of age, and liquefaction and swelling of lens fibers were progressed with aging. Tpm1 and 2 may not only be involved in EMT of PCO, but may also be involved in the normal lens development and differentiation.
It is essential to measure forward scattering in order to accurately grasp visual function in eyes with cataract. Although objective measurements of forward scattering are reproducible, there have been a few detailed studies on objective forward scattering in a large cohort of cataract patients. We aimed to clarify relevant factors of objective forward scattering and its change after cataract surgery. We enrolled 192 cataractous eyes of 192 patients (age, 71.3±9.2 years). We determined age, gender, uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities (UDVA, CDVA), manifest refraction, grade of nuclear sclerosis, objective scattering index (OSI), log (s), and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs). We found explanatory variables relevant to OSI to be, logMAR CDVA (p<0.0001, partial regression coefficient B=5.917) and log (s) (p=0.0006, B=0.911) (adjusted R2=0.333). No significant association was observed with other factors including ocular HOAs. Eyes with worse CDVA and higher log (s) are more predisposed to show higher OSI. Cataract surgery induced a significant decrease in OSI (p<0.001). It is suggested that objective forward scattering is significantly associated with CDVA and subjective forward scattering, but is not highly associated with ocular HOAs, and that cataract surgery induced a significant improvement in objective forward scattering.
Different forms of human cataract, such as anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC) and posterior capsular opacification (PCO) result from an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells. This key pathological mechanism is thought to be primarily driven by Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFß) , not only in cataract, but in many other fibrotic pathologies. Stimulation of cells by TGFß leading to EMT and subsequent cataract is regulated intracellularly by different signalling pathways including the canonical Smad, and non-canonical MAPK (ERK, p38) pathways. These pathways are thought to potentially crosstalk and together lead to a number of different EMT features, including loss of epithelial phenotype, myofibroblast cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and even aberrant redox signalling. Earlier studies have shown that these TGFß-mediated pathways can be regulated by many different means such as by other growth factors (FGF, EGF, BMPs) , ECM proteins and modulators, and intracellular molecules such as members of the Sprouty family, that in turn negatively regulate the Smad- and MAPK-signaling pathways. Here we review our current work examining the different modes of regulating the molecular mechanisms that drive EMT in the lens. We hope that with a better understanding of these processes, this will lead to more effective means of controlling this lens pathology and subsequently lead to the development of novel non-invasive therapeutics for human cataract.
Cell aggregation were differentiated from iPS cells derived from human iris by standstill and rotation culture method, made the section from cell block, and stained hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.) staining, immunostaining of αA-crystalline and p75NTR. Epithelial-like cells were arranged in a monolayer on the surface of the aggregate and strongly express αA-crystalline and p75NTR. Partially observed a part similar to the bow area at the late stage of lens development which is continuously multilayered inward, and a membrane-like structure.
This study showed that the amount of free radicals in the aqueous humor increased depending on the amount of laser irradiation energy in porcine lens in femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). Even in clinical FLACS, during laser lens irradiation in the anterior chamber where no scavenger is present may cause corneal endothelial damage depending on the amount of free radicals generated. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the laser irradiation setting.
Cataract surveys are ongoing for the approximately 20,000 emergency workers at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Of these workers, 3,673 were identified in the nationwide survey as subjects with exposure doses of 20 mSv or more, and 479 were examined between April 2018 and March 2020. Vacuoles were observed in a relatively large number of subjects. Continual long-term investigation is needed to examine the possibility of progression from vacuoles to posterior subcapsular cataracts.
Purpose : To investigate visual outcomes after implantation of Symfony and FINE VISION. Methods : Symfony was implanted in 71 eyes of 45 patients and FINE VISION was implanted in 83 eyes of 51 patients at Nippon Medical School Musashikosugi Hospital between June 2014 and July 2019. Uncorrected and corrected visual acuity for far (5 m), intermediate (60 cm) and near (33 cm) distance, contrast sensitivity, and visual defocus curve were measured, and patient satisfaction were evaluated at 1 month after surgery. Results : The mean uncorrected visual acuity (log MAR) with Symfony was 0.31 (0.49) for near, −0.14 (1.36) for intermediate, and 0.03 (0.94) for distance, while with FINE VISION 0.16 (0.70) for near, 0.12 (0.75) for intermediate, and −0.02 (1.05) for distance. Near visual acuity was better with FINE VISION, while intermediate visual acuity was better with Symfony (p<0.05). The average of contrast sensitivities in Symfony cases were within the range of standards under 40 years old. However, those in FINE VISION cases were out of the range in the high frequency range. Conclusion : Near visual acuity with FINE VISION was better than that with Symfony. Both IOLs provided good visual acuity at far and intermediate distance.
Purpose : To investigate postoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) and refractive change among three types of single-piece intraocular lenses (IOL). Methods : SN60WF (Alcon), ZCB00V (Johnson and Johnson), or NS-60YG (NIDEK) IOL were implanted in 104 eyes of 64 patients. At 1-week, 1- and 3-month post-surgery, ACD and equivalent spherical power (SE) were measured. Results : SE change did not differ significantly by IOL at any time. ACD did not change significantly in eyes with SN60WF. One to three months after surgery, ACD was significantly deeper in eyes with ZCB00V. Ratio of ACD change by ±0.3mm or more between 1 week and 1 month was significantly larger in eyes with NS-60YG than in eyes with SN60WF. Conclusions : A comparison of change in mean ACD over time after insertion of single-piece single focus IOL showed that change in mean ACD in the early postoperative period differs depending on the IOL type. In the early postoperative period, eyes implanted with SN60WF showed a small change in ACD implicating the best postoperative stability of refraction, and NS-60YG may have relatively lower stability of refraction than SN60WF.