The mutual permeability between work and personal life （Work Life Permeability） has increased the need for employees to manage their boundaries between the two. This study considers the following types of permeability: integration （mutual permeability between work and personal life）, separated （no permeability between the two）, work priority （permeability only of work in the personal life）, and home priority （permeability only of personal life）. We further divided the integrated type that increased due to the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 （COVID-19） crisis, into integrated–active （where boundaries can be managed） and integrated–passive （where they cannot be managed）. Additionally, we analyzed the individual questionnaires that targeted employees and identified, ① the changes in the types of inter-role interference before and after COVID-19; ② level of satisfaction with the integrated–active and integrated–passive types, actual conditions of work–life balance, and their differences and similarities; and ③ regulatory factors for falling under the integrated–active type. Finally, we examined the management of boundaries and work for the integrated–active type, behavior of superiors, and workplace support.
This study examined gender differences in career mobility in professions with a high proportion of men and in professions with a high proportion of women using 2017–2021 Japanese Panel Study of Employment Dynamics data （JPSED）. The results of the mobility table and multivariate analysis found that although there were no gender differences in the turnover rates of professions with a high percentage of women （regular employment）, the turnover rates of women in professions with a high percentage of men （regular employment） were much lower than the turnover rates of men. As age increased, the gender gap in professions with a high percentage of men became larger, arguably due to the impact of life events such as marriage and child-rearing. Previous studies have demonstrated an equalization of the sex ratio in professions with a high percentage of men. However, the analysis in this study revealed that many more women than men leave professions with a high proportion of men in the course of their careers, resulting in the re-segregation of gender roles, thus, maintaining the gender system within the organization. Conversely, men in professions with a high proportion of women were not found to be disadvantaged in career mobility.
This research aims to investigate latent structures of the Japanese female labor markets. According to prior literatures, the Japanese labor markets have two structures: primary sectors and secondary sectors. As is well known, these structures are composed of sex, academic credentials, employment status, the size of firms, and industries. As prior research did not focus on the diversities of employment status in the female labor markets, this paper employed Japanese Panel Study of Employment Dynamics and revealed two findings. Firstly, about 16 ％ workers with non-standard employment status found in primary sectors indicates that female labor markets aren’t divided by employment status completely. Secondly, there is a segmentation found between workers with non-standard employment status in secondary sectors. These findings suggest the dualism in female labor markets in Japan is different from that in whole labor market.
This paper examines how company personnel policies affect the willingness of employees to work. Using a dataset with multi-level structure, i.e., company level and to their employees’ level, makes a more comprehensive analysis possible. This multi-level analysis identifies and reconciles the differing perceptions on company personnel policies between companies and workers. Finally, how this affects the willingness of employees to work is estimated. In order to analyze the impact of the company personnel policies that facilitate internal communication and the company personnel policies that increase the sense of fairness in evaluation, this paper divided the agreement and discrepancy of the company and their employees’ perceptions of the company personnel policies into four categories. Results show that some new personnel policies do not improve the willingness of employees to work if they are simply introduced without being fully acknowledged. The results also show that employees’ willingness to work increases the more they believe that the policies will be effectively implemented. It can be concluded that personnel cannot change workers behavior unless they make their workers understood the intention and importance of their policies.