ABSTRACT The patterns in the cleft lip and palate were classified in great detail,
and the point of center of the clefts in this disease was speculated. The purpose of
the present study was to establish the basic data for classifications of epidemiological
surveys in the future. The subjects were 377 patients with cleft lips and
palates who visited the Second Department of Oro-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Aichi-
Gakuin University Hospital.
The models of cleft lip and palate divided into 17 segments prepared for an
analysis of cleft patterns. And as consequence, the following results were obtained.
(1) The starting point cleft lip and that in palate are considered to be different.
(2) The highest incidence in these cleft patterns was observed in the left vermilion
type, and the lowest was in the right anteria one third of hard palate.
ABSTRACT Pyrimethamine was mixed with mashed feed and given to pregnant
sows of Goettingen miniature pig through a part of the period of organogenesis. A
high incidence of the major malformations such as cleft palate, club foot and micrognathia
was observed in 13 out of 24 newborns from 5 pregnants which received a
teratogenic dose (3.6 mg/kg of body weight/day) from day 11 to day 22 of gestation,
the first half of the organogenetic period. Only one cleft palate was observed
among the 23 newborns from 4 pregnants administered the same dose through the
second half of the period. Among the 51 newborns from 10 pregnants which received
the same dose through the first or second quarter, only 4 newborns showed
external major malformations. However, 19 out of 38 live newborns without external
major malformations in these groups died within 2 days after birth. Clinical
symptoms of these neonatally dead young were similar to splayleg, a naturally occurring
functional anomaly in pigs. No internal malformation was revealed by the
autopsy of these dead newborns.
ABSTRACT Radiation of 2 MeV neutrons was used to induce conotruncal anomalies
experimentally in chick. White leghorn eggs were exposed to a single dose of
neutrons ranging from 50 to 250 rads at various stages of the development. Cardiovascular
anomalies were found in 209 (40%) of 526 treated embryos; conotruncal
anomalies (81/209 or 39%), simple VSD (56/209 or 27%), isolated aortic arch
anomalies (69/209 or 33%) and others (3/209 or 1%). The conotruncal anomalies
were induced at considerably high incidences by exposures during the 3rd day of
incubation and the highest incidence was 74% in the cases malformed by 220 rads.
The types of conotruncal anomalies observed were as follows: VSD with pulmonary
overriding (52 cases), VSD with aortic overriding (11 cases), DORV (10 cases),
truncus arteriosus (6 cases) and complete TGA (2 cases). Sixty (74%) of these
cases had aortic hypoplasia, constituting coarctation or interruption complex
similar to that seen in man. It is generally thought that the experimental production
of complete TGA in chick appears to be impossible when utilizing ordinary
teratogenic means. However, neutron radiation could induce this peculiar anomaly
ABSTRACT Litters from the non-treated dams in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar
rats which are used most frequently in reproduction studies were observed for
strain differences concentrating on the behavioral development during the early
postnatal stage. During the period before the eyelids open, the Wistar rats showed
significantly earlier development of postural reflex and traction than the SD rats.
However, during the period after eyelids open, the significant difference between
these two strains disappeared. The numbers of fallings from a rotorod, ambulation,
and rearing in the SD strain significantly increased as compared with those in the
Wistar strain. These findings suggest that proper caution should be paid to the
developmental period for observing the postural reflex and traction response for
the particular strain.
ABSTRACT Teratogenic effects of azosemide, a loop diuretic, were investigated in
rats, mice and rabbits. Azosemide was given orally to pregnant rats, mice and
rabbits during organogenesis. The pregnant animals were killed at term and their
fetuses were examined for external, visceral and skeletal abnormalities. In rats,
azosemide at 10-30 mg/kg/day did not affect intrauterine growth, resorptions
and rates of external and visceral malformations. Treatment with 90 mg/kg/day
resulted in a significant increase in skeletal abnormalities such as wavy ribs, bent
scapula and bent humerus. However, the skeletal abnormalities observed in term
fetuses could not be found in adult offspring, indicating that they were temporary.
In mice, 1250 mg/kg/day of azosemide caused maternal death, abortion, and
retarded maternal and fetal weight. Treatment with 200-500 mg/kg/day did not induce
fetal mortalities, external and visceral malformations. Skeletal abnormalities
increased in dose-dependent fashion. The type of abnormalities was identical to
that encountered in rat fetuses. Furosemide as a positive control also produced
similar types of skeletal abnormalities in mouse fetuses. In rabbits, azosemide did
not have embryolethal or teratogenic effects even at the highest dose (6 mg/kg/
day), which caused maternal death.
Treatment for a different 3-day period and then a different day during organogenesis
in rats and mice showed that the sensitive period was days 15-17 of gestation
with a peak on day 16 in rats, and days 12-15 with a peak on day 13 in mice.
ABSTRACT A system of rapid and comprehensive access to the literature
of developmental toxicity, including teratogenicity, of environmental agents
has been developed and operated by the Environmental Teratology Information
Center (ETIC). On-line retrieval services have been provided through
TOXLINE and RECON. The ETIC file has accommodated about 31,500 reports
on 8720 agents selected from 3000 sources as of November 1, 1983.
In this communication, the history and present status of ETIC is introduced
and an example is presented on how to utilize the ETIC file by TOXLINE
in Japan. ETIC welcomes requests of members of our Society to use the
file and also expects to receive more Japanese references since ETIC has a