official journal of Congeital Anomalies Research Association of Japan
Online ISSN : 2433-1503
Print ISSN : 0037-2285
Volume 24 , Issue 3
Congenital Anomalies
Showing 1-5 articles out of 5 articles from the selected issue
Original Article
  • 1984 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 145-148
    Published: 1984
    Released: July 13, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    ABSTRACT Spleen cells from newborn rats with bisdiamine-induced congenital malformation were examined for subpopulation of lymphocytes and responsiveness of the lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). T cells, but not B cells, were significantly diminished in the drug-treated newborn rats. Proliferative response of the lymphocytes to PHA and ConA, but not to LPS, was significantly depressed in the drug-treated newborns. Thus a defect in cell-mediated immunity was suggested to be associated with the congenital anomaly. It is tempting to consider that this bisdiamine-induced malformation can be another animal model for the DiGeorge syndrome
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  • 1984 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 149-155
    Published: 1984
    Released: July 13, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    ABSTRACT Preliminary data are presented on the activity of nonspecific esterases in brain and amniotic fluid of normal and exencephalic fetus of Wistar rats treated with single injection of 20 mg/kg cyclophosphamide on day 13 of gestation. In the experimental animal, a reduction in total esterase activity is observed in the brain (74% of control), while activity in the amniotic fluid shows a 40% increase. Eserine treatment indicates that the low esterase activity in the brain is due to a lack of cholinesterases. Inhibition studies with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) points to the presence of a high proportion of organophosphate-resistant esterases in the amniotic fluid of both control and experimental animals. Isoelectric focussing on thin layer polyacrylamide gel shows deletion of the fastest migrating cathodal isozyme in the experimental samples of the brain and amniotic fluid in 50% of cases. The significant increase of enzyme activity in the amniotic fluid clearly underlines the future scope for employing nonspecific esterase level as an additional parameter in the prenatal diagnosis of central nervous malformations.
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  • 1984 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 157-162
    Published: 1984
    Released: July 13, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    ABSTRACT Wistar rats were administered rabbit anti-fetal-rat-heart serum (AFHS) alone on day 9 of gestation or in combination with sub-teratogenic doses of rabbit anti-rat-kidney serum (AKS). The results showed that the incidence of cardiovascular malformation was low (4.3%) when AFHS alone was administered. However, the incidence markedly increased to 42.4% when a small dose (O.lml/lOOg) of AKS was given on day 9 followed by 0.9ml/lOOg of AFHS on day 10. Ventricular septa1 defects, aortic arch anomalies, and double outlet right ventricle were the most common cardiovascular malformations observed. These results were similar to our previous finding using adult rat heart antiserum, and suggest that AFHS alone is not teratogenic, but when combined with a sub-teratogenic dose of AKS it becomes teratogenic and organ specific.
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  • 1984 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 163-172
    Published: 1984
    Released: July 13, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    ABSTRACT Muscular potentials were recorded from medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus muscles (SOL) of dystrophic and normal mice of the strain C57BL/6Jdy, dwarf and normal mice of the strain DW/J, and brachymorphic mice of the strain C57BL/6J-brn. The mice were anesthetized with urethane and the sciatic nerve was stimulated at 0.5 and 5 Hz with square pulses. When the frequency of stimulation was raised from 0.5 to 5 Hz and maintained at the latter frequency for 10 min, muscular potentials of dystrophic MG decreased slightly, whereas the other MGs showed a rapid and remarkable reduction in amplitudes. In addition, muscular potentials of SOL of all mice were slightly potentiated. Thus, changing patterns of muscular potentials of dystrophic MG were shifted toward those characteristic of SOLS
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  • 1984 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 173-182
    Published: 1984
    Released: July 13, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    ABSTRACT The effects of caffeine on embryotoxicity including teratogenicity and clastogenicity of different classes of teratogens were examined in ICR-mice in order to make clear the relationship between embryotoxicity and induced chromosomal aberrations in embryos. The teratogens used were isopropyl methanesulfonate (IPMS, 100 mglkg), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU, 20 mg/kg) and dimethyl sulfate (DMS, 25 mg/kg). In teratological studies, teratogens were given intraperitoneally on day 12 of gestation and caffeine subcutaneously in five divided doses (100 mglkg for each) at 6 hours intervals during 0-24 hours following the teratogen treatment. In cytogenetical studies, teratogens (ip) were administered to ICR-mice along with caffeine (sc) at a dose of 200 mglkg on day 12 of gestation. Embryotoxicity was checked on day 18 of gestation, and clastogenicity at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours following the co-administration of these drugs. The co-administration of caffeine and any one of these teratogens induced potentiative response in the formation of gross malformations and particularly in the production of chromosomal aberrations. The data obtained suggest the positive association of teratogenicity with clastogenicity of IPMS, MNU and DMS. Excess cell death due to chromosomal aberrations is highly suggestive as one of the mechanisms of embryotoxicity including teratogenicity of these teratogens.
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