ABSTRACT Embryotoxicity of methotrexate (MTX) and modification of its ef- fect by folinic acid (FA) were evaluated in rats. MTX was administered intraperi- toneally to pregnant rats on day 9 of gestation (vaginal plug = day 0), and was fol- lowed by an intraperitoneal injection of FA after various time intervals (0-8 hours). Two dose combinations were used; 0.3 mg/kg of MTX and 1.0 mg/kg of FA, and 3.0 mg/kg of MTX and 10.0 mg/kg of FA. The dams were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for visceral and skeletal development. The results are as follows: 1) A single dose of 0.3 mg/kg of MTX resulted in high embryolethality and growth retardation in all live fetuses and a single dose of 3.0mg/kg of MTX showed 100% embryolethality. 2) A single dose of 1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg of FA showed no embryotoxicity. 3) The mitigating effect of FA on MTX-induced embryotoxicity was observed when FA was administered simulta- neously with MTX, but was rapidly decreased as the time interval between MTX and FA dosings became longer. 4) Some live fetuses which escaped from MTX embryolethality showed growth retardation and dilation of the cerebral ventricles. The dilation of the cerebral ventricles was found even in the simultaneously treated groups, though the incidences were much lower than the belatedly treated groups.
ABSTRACT Malformations of the caudal vena cava were found in two male Holstein-Friesian calves. Cases 1 and 2 were clinically diagnosed as arthritis and intestinal atresia, respectively. Both calves died soon after birth. Case 1: The com- mon trunk, which consisted of the right and left common iliac veins, ran forward just beneath the vertebral column passing through the aortic hiatus, and then enter- ing the coronary sinus by way of the left azygos vein. The other venous trunk originated from the junction of the right and left renal veins and ran normally thereafter. Reduction of the cervical vertebrae, and hypoplasia of the colon, thymus and hypophysis were also observed. Case 2: The common trunk received a renal vein from the horseshoe kidney, passed through the diaphragm on the right side of the aortic hiatus of normal case and emptied into the cranial vena cava by way of the right azygos vein. The hepatic veins passed separately through the foramen venae cavae and entered the right atrium. An abnormal aorta was de- tached and hung from the vertebral column. Atresia coli, cryptorchidism and wry tail were also observed. The above findings showed that the left supracardinal vein in Case 1 and the right one in Case 2 had existed during their embryological life.
ABSTRACT A case of sacral parasite is presented. A parasitic body with an im- complete lower limb was attached to the sacrococcygeal region of a female new- born at birth. The twins were easily separated by operation two days after birth. The parasite contained well developed small and/or large intestines, a multilocular cyst and a unilocular cyst. Histologically, the wall of the multilocular cyst con- sisted of tissues of three germ layers, such as central and peripheral nervous tissues, mature and immature intestine, pancreatic tissue, bronchial cysts, connective tissue, etc. The thick wall of the unilocular cyst consisted of central nervous tissue and connective tissue. The degree of differentiation of these tissues varied consider- ably. The parasite revealed no organ communication with the autosite. Since the operation, her growth and development have been favorable and no other abnor- malities have been found.