ABSTRACT It has been very difficult to investigate mammalian embryogenesis. Whole- embryo culture systems allow the observation of mammalian embryogenesis and enable the manipulation of the embryos, but it is almost impossible to culture fetuses at the late gestational period. The exo utero method does allow the manipulation of mammalian fetuses at the late gestational period. In this review, the detailed method of ex0 ufero surgery in mice is described, and the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of laser equipment for fetal surgery are discussed. It has long been known that arhinencephaly is often associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. The relationship between agenesis of the olfactory bulb and that of the corpus callosum is not fully understood. In this review, an example of fetal laser surgery ex0 utero was introduced, in which fissuration of the corpus callosum was induced after the destruction of the anlage of the olfactory bulbs in the mouse embryo. It was thus elucidated that agenesis of the olfactory bulbs induced the agenesis of the corpus callosum.
ABSTRACT Carbamazepine dissolved in propylene glycol was administered to chick embryos in order to determine its teratogenicity in the cardiovascular system. A single dose of 3, 5, 7, or 10 mg was administered at 72 hours of incubation (Hamburger-Hamil- ton stage 18). On day 10 of incubation, embryos were removed and examined for cardio- vascular abnormalities. Cardiovascular abnormalities were noted in 37.8%, 54.8%, 76.9%, and 88.0% of live embryos in groups treated with 3, 5, 7, and 10 mg, respectively. Our experiment represented a statistically significant increase of cardiovascular abnormalities and showed a significant dose-dependent increase. Infundibular ventricular septa1 defect was the primary cardiac anomaly observed in this study. A high percentage of this anomaly was accompanied by hypoplastic right 6th aortic arch artery and/or persistent left 4th aortic arch artery. A small number of double outlet right ventricle was found.