ABSTRACT Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) may have clinical implications. The present case study describes a male cadaver with a duplicated IVC and a hypoplastic right kidney. The IVC is derived embryologically from the development and remodeling of the posterior cardinal, subcardinal and supracardinal veins. The definitive kidneys develop from the metanephros. Transforming growth factor-fl (TGF-f3), a positive regulator of angiogenesis and a known inhibitor of tubulogenesis of metanephric tissue in vitro, may provide the link for the concomitant occurrence of the congenital anomalies seen in this case study.
ABSTRACT Tight junctions in the central nervous system (CNS) are a major component of brain barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier, which regulate solute entry and protect against invasion by microorganisms. In this study, we examined the breach of tight junctions in mumps virus-induced hydrocephalic brain in hamsters using antibodies to Laminin B1 chain and zonula occludentes (ZO-1) immuno- histochemistry, and evaluated the role of tight junctions in the pathogenesis of hydroceph- alus after mumps virus infection. In suckling hamsters intracerebrally inoculated with mumps virus, severe periventricular edema, ependymal cell loss, and ventricular dilation were observed. ZO-1-immunoreactive tight junctions in the hydrocephalic brains were severely damaged in the choroid plexus and ependyma, and in white matter capillaries as early as 3 days after inoculation. These changes were suspected to increase the permeability in blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers, leading to periventricular edema. We concluded that the pathologic features of mumps virus-induced hydrocephalus are intimately related to the breach of tight junctions.
ABSTRACT This paper presents the first version of an internationally-developed glossary of terms for structural developmental abnormalities in common laboratory animals. The glossary is put forward by the International Federation of Teratology Societies (IFTS) Committee on International Harmonization of Nomenclature in Developmental Toxicology, and represents considerable progress toward harmonization of terminology in this area. The purpose of this effort is to provide a common vocabulary that will reduce confusion and ambiguity in the description of developmental effects, particularly in submissions to regulatory agencies world-wide, The glossary contains a primary term or phrase, a definition of the abnormality, and notes, where appropriate. Selected synonyms or related terms, which reflect a similar or closely related concept, are noted. Nonpreferred terms are indicated where their usage may be incorrect. Modifying terms used repeatedly in the glossary (e.g., absent, branched) are listed and defined separately, instead of repeating their definitions for each observation. Syndrome names are generally excluded from the glossary, but are listed separately in an appendix. The glossary is organized into broad sections for external, visceral, and skeletal observations, then subdivided into regions, structures, or organs in a general overall head to tail sequence. Numbering is sequential, and not in any regional or hierarchical order. Uses and misuses of the glossary are discussed. Comments, questions, suggestions, and additions from practitioners in the field of developmental toxicology are welcomed on the organization of the glossary as well on as the specific terms and definitions. Updates of the glossary are planned based on the comments received.