ABSTRACT The First International Congenital Anomalies Symposium was held in Chunchon, Korea, on June 3-5, 1998. The Korean Congenital Anomalies Society was formally established during the Symposium. The historical background of the Society was briefly reviewed.
ABSTRACT Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was first carried out in the UK, at the Hammersmith Hospital, in 1989. Since then almost 100 babies have been born worldwide following PGD with no reported increase in congenital anomalies. This overview will consider the types of patients coming forward for the procedure, approaches to single cell diagnosis and the technical difficulties that have become apparent.
ABSTRACT The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) had been considered to be relatively safe for the fetus. We examined the teratogenicity of CBZ using chick embryos, with particular focus on the brain. A single dose of 5 mg was injected into the yolk sac of White Leghorn chick embryos at 24, 72, 120, 168 or 216 hours of incubation. On day 19 of incubation, embryos were removed, and counted and recorded as either live or dead. Each live embryo was inspected for the presence of external abnormalities, and body and brain weight were measured. There was no statistically significant difference between treated groups and control groups at all hours of incubation for mean body weight and incidence of embryo death. Mean brain weight was significantly lighter in treated groups at 120 and 168 hours of incubation. A significant difference in mean braidbody weight ratio was observed only at 120 hours of incubation. External abnormalities in treated embryos were not found with any consistency and these incidences were not significantly higher compared to those in the control groups. This experiment provides evidence regarding the risk of teratogenesis due to CBZ in the brain of chick embryo. The 120 hours of incubation in chick embryos corresponds to the 34-36th day after conception in humans.
ABSTRACT Recent studies on embryos irradiated during the preimplantation period, especially 2 hours post conception (2 hpc), have shown that the sensitivities of external malformations as well as embryonic death were likely to be higher than that of mice irradiated at the stage of organogenesis. In this study, the embryos were irradiated with y- rays at 2 hpc and the DNA damage in embryos at 26 hpc was measured with a comet assay, that is, an alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. The comet assay has been applied to single cells such as lymphocytes and bone marrow cells. We improved the procedure for measuring the DNA damage of two-cell embryos (26 hpc embryos). The frequencies of cells without comet tails in embryos irradiated with 0.5 and 1 .O Gy decreased statistically significantly in comparison with those in non-irradiated embryos. The comet assay could be useful in the measurement of DNA damage for embryonic effects during the preimplantation period.