ABSTRACT Architectural changes in the developing human brain are discussed based on the matrix cell theory. Neural stem cells/matrix cells with self-renewing ability and multipotency exist in the developing human brain in vivo. The brain development is divided into three stages and the cell differentiation is time regulated. Immunohistochemical distribution of various markers for brain development is summarized and categorized along with differentiation lineages. Particularly, the existence of glial fibrillary acidic protein is re-evaluated in the developing human brain. The commonly used terms and concepts “radial glial fiber” or “subventricular zone” are also re-evaluated.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of fetal cells obtained after separation from maternal blood by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) using different fetal specific antibodies, and to evaluate the potential role of this method in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 42 women carrying chromosomally normal fetuses and from 4 women with aneuploid fetuses (2 cases of 47,XX,+18 and 2 of 47,XY,+21) at 9–20 weeks of gestation. After fetal cells were enriched by MACS with three different monoclonal antibodies (GPA, CD71, CD14), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome X, and Y-specific probes was performed to detect the rates of fetal cells in the samples sorted. FISH with chromosome 13-, 18-, and 21-specific probes was carried out to compare proportions of cells with three-signal nuclei in chromosomally normal and abnormal groups. In male infants, X-and Y-positive cells were detected in 80%, 73.3%, and 66.6% of samples after the separation by antibodies CD14, GPA, and CD71, respectively. The percentage of nuclei with three signals was increased in pregnancies with trisomy, ranging between 2% and 5.18%. Pregnancies with normal fetuses showed 0 to 3.7% of nuclei with three signals. The data demonstrate that fetal cell detection varies depending on the antibodies used for cell sorting. This study provides further evidence on the feasibility of screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities by enriching maternal blood for fetal cells and using FISH.
ABSTRACT To determine the ability of immunological response to human cytomegalovirus (CMV), the flow cytometric assay was evaluated as a tool for real-time monitoring of specific cellular immunity in children with congenital CMV infection. Longitudinal cohort study of 2 children with asymptomatic and 2 with symptomatic congenital CMV infection evaluated at birth and followed up with serial age-appropriate neurodevelopmental testing. Frequencies of CMV-specific CD4+ T cell in these children were detected by intracellular cytokines (ICC), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, staining.
Findings detected by CT and MRI were the most sensitive predictor for neurodevelopmental prognosis. Frequencies of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells detected by ICC, both IFN-γ and TNF-α, were higher in 2 children with symptomatic congenital CMV infection than those in 2 children with asymptomatic congenital infection. Frequencies of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells in 2 children with symptomatic congenital infection were significantly higher than those in 6 healthy children of 1 to 5-years of age with serum anti-CMV IgG antibody without serum anti-CMV IgM antibody and viral excretion in to urine (p < 0.01). The ICC assay reflects immunological activity against CMV infection in children with asymptomatic or symptomatic congenial infection. Categorizing findings obtained by the ICC assay may helps to determine the prognosis of children with congenital CMV infection.
ABSTRACT A male rat showing intermittent circling behavior was discovered among the Jc:Wistar rats in our laboratories, and among its backcross offspring individuals showing the same behavior were found. The abnormalities in these animals were characterized by intermittent circling behavior (walking and/or running in circles) and head tossing with the neck twisted. No abnormalities were observed in fertility, delivery or pup mortality. The results of mating experiments indicated that the circling behavior phenotype is controlled by a single sex-linked recessive gene, and the mutant was named “circling behavior linked to X-chromosome (gene symbol: clx).” This circling behavior mutant is considered to be different from the previously reported mutants, the behavior in all of which has been found to be autosomally inherited. Sib-mating is continuing to produce an inbred strain with this newly discovered circling behavior mutant gene.
ABSTRACT Wistar Hannover rats, which have recently been introduced into Japan, are expected to be used in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, yet the accumulation of background data is insufficient. This paper describes our historical data on the reproductive ability of this strain of rat Three lots of sexually matured females (40 each) were received from CLEA JAPAN, Inc. with males of the same strain (30 or 36 each) and mated. A total of 47 dams were killed on gestation day 20 to examine their fetuses. The remaining 71 pregnant females were allowed to deliver spontaneously and observed for common reproductive parameters. The mating and fertility indices of females were both 99.2%. Overall mean numbers of implants and live fetuses at cesarean sectioning were 12.5 and 11.5, respectively. Fetal resorptions and deaths occurred at an incidence of 8.6%. Morphological examinations of fetuses revealed low incidences of spontaneous malformations (each one case of double aortic arch and absent cervical vertebral arch) and a variety of common variations. The followings are overall means of major reproductive parameters obtained from females with live birth: no. of implants, 12.5; no. of pups delivered, 11.8; viability index of pups at birth, 99.8%; and days of age at sexual maturation (vaginal opening and preputial separation), 30.3 and 42.8, respectively. Our present observations confirmed a minimal deviation among 3 lots of animals in terms of reproductive abilities. These results suggest that this strain of rat can be used in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, although the sensitivity to toxicants remains to be elucidated.