Abstract The present study aimed to quantitatively clarify the gross anatomical asymmetry and sexual dimorphism of the cerebral hemispheres of cynomolgus monkeys. While the fronto-occipital length of the right and left cerebral hemispheres was not different between sexes, a statistically significant rightward asymmetry was detected in the cerebral width at the perisylvian region in females, but not in males (narrower width of the left side in the females). An asymmetry quotient of the sulcal lengths revealed a rightward asymmetry in the inferior occipital sulcus and a leftward asymmetry in the central and intraparietal sulci in both sexes. However, the laterality of the lengths of other sulci was different for males and females. The arcuate sulcus was directed rightward in males but there was no rightward bias in females. Interestingly, the principle sulcus and lateral fissure were left-lateralized in the males, but right-lateralized in the females. The results suggest that lateralization patterns are regionally and sexually different in the cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys. The present results provide a reference for quantitatively evaluating the normality of the cerebral cortical morphology in cynomolgus monkeys.
ABSTRACT Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) newborns have increased risk of adult metabolic syndrome, including fatty liver. However, it is unclear whether the fatty liver development is “programmed” or secondary to the accompanying obesity. In this study, we examined hepatic lipid accumulation and lipid-regulatory factors (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase) in IUGR and Control fetal (embryonic day 20; e20) and newborn (postnatal day 1; p1) rat pups. Notably, despite of in utero undernutrition state, IUGR fetuses demonstrated “fatty liver” with upregulation of these lipogenic indices at as early as e20. Both IUGR and Control newborns exhibited the same extent of massive increase in hepatic lipid content, whereas IUGR newborns continued to exhibit upregulated lipogenic indices. The persistent upregulation of the lipogenic indices in fetal and newborn IUGR suggests that fatty liver is gestationally programmed. Our study suggested that IUGR offspring were born with an altered metabolic life strategy of increased fuel/lipid storage which could be a distinct metabolic pathway of the thrifty phenotype.
ABSTRACT Phospholipids have important roles in many biological processes, but their role in fetal malformation in pregnancy in diabetes is unclear. Metabolic fingerprinting of placental phospholipids in pregnant streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats was performed using Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Some of the fetuses from the pregnant diabetic rats exhibited ventricular septal defects. Alterations of phospholipid compositions in the diabetic rat placenta were detected. We suggest that these changes in phospholipids in the diabetic placenta might be involved in development of fetal malformation in a type 1 diabetic pregnancy.
Abstract Behavioral results are sometimes not reproducible even in the positive controls of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) tests. Effects of several factors on the results should be considered. In the present paper, we examined the effects of strain-, gender-, and test-condition differences on BrdU-induced hyperactivity. The results showed that BrdU-induced hyperactivity was reproducible in two rat strains (SD and F344 rats), rodent species (rat and mouse), and both sexes. When the level of background sound in a test room was increased, the hyperactivity was persistent, resulting in no effect of background sound on BrdU-induced hyperactivity. Thus, we have demonstrated that the BrdU-animal model is a useful positive control via prenatal exposure to validate the entire DNT test process.
Abstract Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine that has neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions. However, its function in the mid- to late-gestational fetus remains unclear. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze GM-CSF levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, and amniotic fluid of mouse fetuses. We also examined GM-CSF and receptor α (GM-CSFRα) levels in the fetal brain, liver, and placenta. GM-CSF peaked between embryonic day (E) 14 and E15 in the CSF. GM-CSF level was higher in the fetal serum than in the dam serum on E13 and decreased thereafter. GM-CSF and GM-CSFRα levels peaked between E13 and E15 in the brain. These results suggest that GM-CSF plays stage- and organ-specific roles in fetal development.
ABSTRACT Isolated levocardia (IL) is a rare type of situs inversus in which the heart is in the normal left-side position, but the abdominal viscera are in the dextroposition. Polysplenia is a congenital disorder affecting the asymmetric organs, including the heart, lungs, bronchi, liver, stomach, intestines, and spleen. In this report, we present a rare type satisfying the characteristics of both IL and polysplenia, confirmed by several imaging investigations, which revealed normally structured lungs and heart and the existence of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which runs on the left side, returns to the anterior-right side at the liver, and returns to the right atrium directly. Anatomical investigation and careful observation will make it possible to improve the prognosis of IL.