Abstract Syndromic microphthalmia-3 is a rare congenital syndrome associated with brain anomalies, esophageal atresia and genital anomalies. This is the case of a 4-year-old male with bilateral microphthalmia, short stature, neurodevelopmental delay, genital anomalies, and maternal exposition to glyphosate during pregnancy. Genetic testing detected a previously reported pathogenic heterozygous mutation in the SOX2 gene, confirming a diagnosis of syndromic microphthalmia-3. Whenever a patient presents bilateral microphthalmia, it is necessary to determine whether it is isolated or syndromic; afterwards, genetic testing should be performed in order to offer an effective genetic counseling.
Abstract Interstitial deletions of the 16q centromeric region are rarely reported. A microdeletion of the 16q12.2q21 region was identified in a patient with intellectual disability, epilepsy, short stature, and distinctive features; including up-slanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, anteverted nares, simple philtrum, thin upper lip vermilion, high arched palate, posteriorly rotated ears, and overlapping toes in his right foot. Although the deleted region includes the genes responsible for neurological impairments (GNOA1, GPR56, KATNB1, and BBS2), haploinsufficiency of these genes would not be associated with the patient's phenotype. When NDRG4, present in the deleted region, was knocked out in mice, these mice exhibited spatial learning deficits. Thus, we hypothesize that this gene could be a potential candidate underlying the neurological observations of the patient. Because RSPRY1 was been discovered as the cause of progressive skeletal dysplasia, a loss of this gene might explain the skeletal defects observed in the patient.