1) Gross observations on the development of the hindlimb in the toad, Bufo vulgaris formosus, were carried out. The whole period through this development was divided into 18 stages. 2) In the larvae reared at the high temperature (30±1℃), various anomalies such as retardation or standstill in the development, occurrence of edema and malformations of toes, etc. were observed. The most frequent malformation of the toe was oligodactylism caused by the elimination of the hallux. The cause leading to this digital malformation was disussed.
Effects of hypervitaminosis A on developing mouse embryos in three inbred strains were studied with special attention to malformations and chromosomal changes. Pregnant female** were treated with vitamin A (15,000 I. U.) on the 9th day of gestation. Various anomalies were produced in treated mice with varying frequencies. Cleft palate and micromelia were most common among them. The type and frequency of other malformations seem to show a strain difference. Some dd embryos examined for chromosomal changes 24 and 48 hours following treatment showed chromatid breaks or gaps with a rather low frequency.
A female newborn with diprosopus was born of a 33 years old multipara who had suffered from a moderate toxemia in the middle of her 42nd week of pregnancy. The parents were not a consanguineous marriage. Further, they have no congenital malformations or hereditary disorders. Their family has no evidence of such debits. The mother had an anamnesis from taking an anti-emetic medicine for one time in the early stage of pregnancy. The body weight of this malformed baby was 2.98kg, hight, 5lcm, circumference of the head 37cm and 30cm in circumference of the chest 30cm. Her face was duplicated and showed symmetric in appearance as a whole. She had one neck, four eye-balls, two noses with two nostrils in each, two ears and two mouths. These organs were almost matured. While she was alive, systolic murmurs were heared on the left sternal border. While she had been hospitalized, occasional tonic convulsions of the upper extremities were evident. She had tachypnea without fever or tachycardia. From the 7th week after birth, symptoms of a congestive heart failure had started, and she died on the 53rd day after birth. In autopsy findings, the frontal lobe of the cerebrum, hypophysis, basilar artery and the Ist, IInd and IIIrd cranial nerves were duplicated. Four maior cardiovascular anomalies were detected such as ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, origin of both great vessels from the right ventricle without pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.