Education of Earth Science
Online ISSN : 2423-8953
Print ISSN : 0009-3831
ISSN-L : 0009-3831
Volume 71 , Issue 3
Showing 1-6 articles out of 6 articles from the selected issue
Original Articles
Technical Article
  • Ieyasu TAKIMOTO, Eiichi SATO
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 83-96
    Published: February 28, 2019
    Released: November 13, 2019
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    A questionnaire survey was conducted on science teachers at municipal junior high schools in May 2017 with the aim of elucidating the current situation regarding the implementation of field work in earth science and science teachers’ awareness of field work. In order to understand the difference in teachers’ awareness according to age, we carried out an 11-stage survey and analyzed data on teachers grouped by age from their 20 to 30s and from their 40 to 60s. Through our study we found: (1) Lack of experience in field work, lack of knowledge of teaching methods on site, lack of tools needed for field work, and the non-utilization of workshops may be obstacles for the implementation of field work. (2) Teachers in their 20 and 30s tend to feel that they are not good at teaching about “overlapping strata and its relation to the past” and we also found that they have strong anxieties about teaching on site because of a lack of experience in field work. (3) Creating programs for teachers in their 20 and 30s to experience field work and learn teaching methods on site would contribute to an improvement in the implementation rate.

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Commentary Article
  • Yoshihisa HIROKI
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 97-107
    Published: February 28, 2019
    Released: November 13, 2019
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    This paper attempts to explain the Hjulström’s diagram, which is an important tool to understanding the formation of detritus sediment strata associated with stream water. Although the Hjulström’s diagram was first introduced around 80 years ago, it is still useful when attempting to understand the manner in which detritus beds form deposits in water. The diagram also illustrates the relationship between the grain size of sediments and the flow velocities at the time of deposition and erosion. Strata are formed due to the deposition of beds with differing grain sizes during cyclic flow velocity changes. Each depositional environment coincides with a specific hydraulic energy at which the fluctuation in flow velocity exhibits a specific range; therefore, beds having specific grain sizes are deposited. Coarse-grained sediments are generally deposited in environments with high hydraulic energy, while fine-grained sediments are more general in environments with low hydraulic energy.

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