We report the results and educational effectiveness of an elementary school volcanology class conducted in Dinosaur Valley Fukui Katsuyama Geopark, Katsuyama City, Fukui Prefecture. Our volcanology class consists of a lecture on volcanic activity and land formation and an experiment on magma formation using a portable clay cooking stove. The students observed a lava flow, at around 1,000℃ as estimated by an IR thermometer, charring wooden toothpicks placed in the slope of a sand pile. The results of post-class questionnaires suggest that the students had gained an understanding of the high temperature of lava; and had also developed an interest in the relationship between volcanic activity and land formation in the Katsuyama region.
An analogue material model of magma having different viscosities was developed and made from superabsorbent polymer and copper (II) sulfate. The viscosity of the material changed according to the metal content. The analogue model illustrated the differences in the shape and color of volcanoes. I used this model for teaching in high school. By using the analogue model, students could understand that one of the cause of variations in viscosity is the difference in chemical compositions.
A questionnaire survey was conducted on science teachers at municipal junior high schools in May 2017 with the aim of elucidating the current situation regarding the implementation of field work in earth science and science teachers’ awareness of field work. In order to understand the difference in teachers’ awareness according to age, we carried out an 11-stage survey and analyzed data on teachers grouped by age from their 20 to 30s and from their 40 to 60s. Through our study we found: (1) Lack of experience in field work, lack of knowledge of teaching methods on site, lack of tools needed for field work, and the non-utilization of workshops may be obstacles for the implementation of field work. (2) Teachers in their 20 and 30s tend to feel that they are not good at teaching about “overlapping strata and its relation to the past” and we also found that they have strong anxieties about teaching on site because of a lack of experience in field work. (3) Creating programs for teachers in their 20 and 30s to experience field work and learn teaching methods on site would contribute to an improvement in the implementation rate.
This paper attempts to explain the Hjulström’s diagram, which is an important tool to understanding the formation of detritus sediment strata associated with stream water. Although the Hjulström’s diagram was first introduced around 80 years ago, it is still useful when attempting to understand the manner in which detritus beds form deposits in water. The diagram also illustrates the relationship between the grain size of sediments and the flow velocities at the time of deposition and erosion. Strata are formed due to the deposition of beds with differing grain sizes during cyclic flow velocity changes. Each depositional environment coincides with a specific hydraulic energy at which the fluctuation in flow velocity exhibits a specific range; therefore, beds having specific grain sizes are deposited. Coarse-grained sediments are generally deposited in environments with high hydraulic energy, while fine-grained sediments are more general in environments with low hydraulic energy.