Proliferative responses of mononuclear cell (MNC) in spleen and thymus to concanavalin A were investigated in chicks fed diets supplemented with 0 or 10ppm corticosterone ad libitum for 10 days. When autologous serum was added to the culture medium at 5% of final volume, dietary corticosterone reduced the proliferative response of MNC in thymus, but not in spleen. The mitogenic response of splenocyte MNC obtained from the control-chicks was reduced by the addition of the serum obtained from chicks fed corticosterone, but the response of splenocyte MNC from chicks fed corticosterone did not differ from that of the control, regardless of serum sources. The results suggest that dietary corticosterone efficiently reduces the proliferative response of MNC in thymus to Con A rather than those in spleen, and may not impair, at least, capacity of Con A induced proliferative response of splenocyte in male broilers.
The relationship between the chicken plasma gastrin concentration and feeding behavior was investigated in chicks. Plasma gastrin levels were enhanced by the H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole. As plasma gastrin concentration increased, the food intake was decreased linearly. Data obtained here suggest that gastrin could be a satiety hormone in the pharmacological concentration but not in the physiological concentration range.
The effect of domperidone, a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, on the forward passage of the crop contents of chicks receiving 20% medium chain or long chain triacylglycerol was studied. Medium chain triacylglycerol significantly delayed the crop emptying of chicks compared with long chain triacylglycerol, though no significant effects were obtained by domperidone treatments. The present result suggested that the involvement of dopaminergic action was negligible in the delayed crop emptying rate induced by medium chain triacylglycerol in chicks.
The effects of cecal ligation on nitrogen utilization and nitrogen excretion were compared between chickens fed on a 5% protein diet and a 5% protein diet plus urea. When a 5% protein diet was fed, total N excretion and N balance were significantly decreased and increased by the ligation of ceca, respectively, which were similar to the responses in chickens fed on a 5% protein diet plus urea. The ligation of ceca in both dietary groups significantly decreased uric acid excretion, but did not affect urea and ammonia excretion. None of blood uric acid, urea and ammonia concentrations were significantly changed by cecal ligation in either dietary group. It is concluded that the ligation of ceca decreases uric acid production and tends to increase N utilization, in similar manners in chickens fed on a low protein diet and a low protein diet plus urea.
The authors established a simple method for DNA typing of swine major histocompatibility complex (SLA) class II genes (DQA, DQB, DRA and DRB) using RT-PCR amplification with the hot start technique and RFLP analysis. Single primer sets were used to amplify cDNAs of 534 by (or 537 bp) for DQA, 364-bp for DQB, 550 bp for DRA and 401 bp for DRB containing the entire exon 2 (the first domain), and some portions of exon 1 and exon 3. The primer sequences and RT-PCR conditions are as follows: 1) Primer sequences; DQA: forward, 5'-CGTGATGAGCGCCTGTGGAGGT-3'; reverse, 5'-CCCCAGTGCTCCACTTTGCAGT-3'; DQB: forward, 5'-CTTGACGGTGATGCTGGTGGTG- 3'; reverse, 5'- CTGCCTTGGATGGGGAGATAGT-3'; DRA: forward, 5'TGAACCTTCAGAAATCATGGGC-3'; reverse, 5'-TTGAGAAGAGGCTTGTCCAAAC-3'; DRB: forward, 5'-TAGTGGTGGTGCTGAGCCCTCCTCTGGCTTTGGCC-3'; reverse, 5'-GAACCCAGTCACAGAGCAGACCAGGAGGTTGTGGT-3'. 2) RT-PCR condition; RT: 65°C for 10min and 70°C for 15min. PCR: 1 cycle of 95°C for 2min, 35 cycles of 95°C (1min), 65°C (1min) and 72°C (1min) followed by 7-min extension at 72°C. RT-PCR was carried out using a GeneAmp Thermostable rTh Reverse Transcriptase RNA PCR kit. Total RNA (about 150ng) as the RNA template was extracted from peripheral white blood cells by AGPC. The usefulness of the present method for SLA class II genes was confirmed in a NIH miniature swine pedigree.
Two digestion trials were conducted by using five cattle to determine the ability of two lignin techniques to estimate in vivo dry matter (DM) digestibility. The lignins investigated were, 1) acid detergent fiber extraction followed by digestion with 72% sulfuric acid (ADL), and 2) ADL procedure followed by hydrolysis with 3% sulfuric acid in an autoclave (121°C) for 1 hour (ADLAC). In trial 1, each cattle received 15, 2 and 1kg/d of corn (whole crop) silage, cubed alfalfa hay and concentrate, respectively. In trial 2, they were given 15 and 3kg/d of corn silage and cubed alfalfa hay, respectively. Digestion coefficients of DM from ADL ratio were higher than in vivo coefficients, but digestion coefficients from ADLAC ratio were similar to in vivo coefficients. Fecal recoveries of ADL and ADLAC were 111 and 92%, respectively, in trial 1 and 116 and 98%, respectively, in trial 2. ADLAC was more acceptable than ADL for use as internal markers in corn silage-alfalfa hay diets.