We estimated carrier frequencies of five haplotypes on recessive disorders (HH1, HH2, HH3, HH4, HH5) which cause embryonic lethal genetic defects, and a haplotype of cholesterol deficiency (HCD) which causes calf mortality by using 43,053 genotyped animals. In addition, impacts of the HH1 to HH5 on conception rate were investigated by implementing analysis of variance which included the interaction of genotype for service-sire and sire of cow as fixed effect. Although carrier frequency of HH1 tended to decrease over the years, the value remained at 4% and was higher than HH2 and HH4 in recent years. The recent carrier frequency of HH3 slightly increased in only females and it of HH5 remained at 3 to 4%. The carrier frequency of HCD had been decreasing since 2012. The interaction of genotype for carrier service sire and carrier sire of cow on conception rate had significant negative in only HH1 (P<0.001) and was also likely to be negative in HH2 to HH4. These results of HH1 to HH5 suggested the necessities of monitoring the carriers and avoidance of their carrier mating.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of restricted feeding on feed intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and feed digestibility in Japanese Black fattening steers. Eight 14-month-old Japanese Black steers were used in this study. Experimental period was 14 months (i.e., 14-28 months of age). The fattening period was divided into two stages based on the age of the steers. These stages represented the middle stage and late stage, at 14-22 and 23-28 months of age, respectively. The steers were divided into two groups. The restricted group (RG, n＝4) was fed concentrate and rice straw with total digestible nutrients at 110% of the Japanese Feeding Standard for fattening steers, expecting a daily weight gain (DG) of 0.75kg. The control group (CG, n＝4) was supplied both concentrate and rice straw ad libitum. Feed intake per metabolic body size (MBS) was significantly lower in RG than in CG during the middle stage. However, during the late stage, feed intake per MBS was higher (P<0.10) in RG than in CG. The monthly trend of feed intake per MBS in CG decreased from 21-23 months of age, which is the end of the middle stage. After 24 months of age, feed intake per MBS was slightly higher in RG than in CG (P<0.10). Feed efficiency in RG was higher than that in CG during the middle (P<0.05) and late stage (P<0.10). DG was not affected by restricted feeding in middle stage. However, during the late stage, DG was significantly higher in RG than in CG. No effect on carcass characteristics was observed under restricted feeding. During the late stage, the effect of the hot environment on dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility was different between CG and RG. DM and OM digestibility in RG during the hot season was significantly higher than those during the moderate season. CP digestibility in CG during the hot season was lower than that during the moderate season (P<0.05). In contrast, DM and OM digestibility in CG and CP digestibility in RG were not affected by hot environment. In addition, reduction of nitrogen retention and change in plasma total protein in RG were alleviated in the hot season. The results indicate that restricted feeding increases feed efficiency and reduce effects of hot environment on nitrogen retention.
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of feeding differently shaped brown rice on daily gain (DG), digestibility, and rumen fermentation in 6-month-old Holstein heifers. We set up three dietary treatment groups that were fed different feed materials comprising 42% of the concentrate : the control group (10 heifers) was fed steam-flaked corn, the whole grain group (11 heifers) was fed whole grain brown rice, and the crushed grain group (11 heifers) was fed crushed brown rice. The roughage fed was timothy hay and the amount required was weighed together with the concentrated feed, and limited feed was provided. The body weight (at the end of examination), DG and feed efficiency were significantly lower in the whole grain group than in other groups. Dry matter digestibility and starch digestibility also decreased (P < 0.05) in the whole grain group. DG, feed efficiency, dry matter digestibility, and starch digestibility in the crushed grain group were equivalent to those in the control group. A markedly lower digestibility of whole grains was observed when brown rice was fed to Holstein heifers, which led to stagnation of their growth ; the crush grain treatment was inferior to the steam-flaked corn treatment. Therefore, these results indicate that crushed brown rice is a suitable substitute feed material for corn.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of delayed feeding for 2 days post hatching period on lipid peroxidation, drip losses, color, and taste of chicken breast meat. Twelve newly hatched chicks (0 day of age) were randomly divided into two groups (control and delayed feeding group). The control group of chicks was fed ad libitum from 0 day of age, while the delayed feeding group of chicks was fed ad libitum from 2 days of age after fasting for 2 days post hatching. When the chicks reached an average body weight of 2.2kg, they were slaughtered. Although delayed feeding prolonged feeding period for 5 days, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and carcass yield were not significantly different between these 2 groups. The delayed feeding group of broiler chickens showed increases in drip losses and lipid peroxidation accompanied by decreased mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and α-tocopherol concentration in their breast muscle. In addition, meat color of breast muscle was affected by delayed feeding, i.e., redness (a*) of the breast muscle of the delayed feeding group of broiler chickens was decreased, while its lightness (L*) was increased compared with those of the control broiler chickens. The metabolomic analysis of the breast muscle of broiler chickens showed that 12 metabolites, including taste components (e.g., glucose, glycine, and hydroxyproline), were different between the two groups. Furthermore, taste sensor evaluation suggested umami taste in the breast muscle of the delayed feeding group of broiler chickens were lower compared with those of control chickens. These results suggest that delayed feeding for 2 days post hatching period affected lipid peroxidation, drip losses, color, and taste component of breast meat of broiler chickens.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic (Bacillus subtilis strain BN) on body weight gain, immune responses (each group ; n = 9), meat weight, meat quality (each group ; n = 4) and intestinal microbial flora (each group ; n = 5), in broiler chickens. The test groups were followed, only Bacillus subtilis strain BN group (BN group), only antibiotic feed additives group (antibiotic feed additives group : AFA group) and either Bacillus subtilis strain BN and antibiotic feed additives group (control group). As immune responses, we examined responses to T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antigens and delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. As meat quality, we examined heating loss, shear force, meat press juice rate and moisture of breast meat. The intestinal bacterial flora was examined in 4 positions ; crop, duodenum, jejunum・ileum and cecum. As a result, the total number of anaerobic bacteria in the jejunum・ileum was significantly higher in BN group than in the AFA and control groups (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in meat weight, meat quality and immune responses. On the other hand, the average body weight of BN group at 7 weeks of age was lower than that of the AFA group, but it was equivalent to the control group. In conclusion, BN group is inferior to the AFA group in the body weight gain. Immune responses and meat quality of BN group are equivalent to AFA and control groups.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of capturing methods on venison quality characteristics. Therefore, we analyzed moisture content, water-holding capacity, textural properties, L*, a*, b* and free amino acids-related substance content for M. longissimus dorsi of sika deer (Cervus nippon) which were captured using foot snare traps (FST samples, n＝3) or grand hunt (GH samples, n＝3) in Izu city, and were processed at the municipal meat processing facility ; “Izusika donya”. Although there was no significant difference in moisture content, drip loss, cooking loss and free amino acids-related substance content among capturing methods, FST showed a tendency to be higher moisture content, lower cooking loss and stress of hardness than GH. Shear force value of FST was significant lower than that of GH (P<0.05). The a* of FST for raw venison was significantly higher than that of GH (P<0.05), whereas no difference was observed in roasted venison. We revealed that venison quality characteristics are different in capturing methods.
This study was aimed to estimate the fatty acid composition of beef by measuring impedance using touch type electrodes. Steaks were prepared from bovine M. semitendinosus, M. longissimus thoracis, and M. serratus ventrailis. The impedance of the steaks was measured with an LCR meter equipped with touch type electrodes. The relationship between percentage of each fatty acid and the impedance of the steaks was analyzed by a simple regression analysis. A significant correlation was observed between the percentage of oleic acid, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, and monounsaturated fatty acid and the impedance of M. serratus ventrailis. There were no significant correlations between the percentages of fatty acids and crude fat content in M. serratus ventrailis. The crude fat content in M. serratus ventrailis (29.7%) was significantly higher than that in M. semitendinosus (3.8%) and M. longissimus thoracis (12.9%). These results suggested that it is possible to estimate the percentage of oleic acid, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, and monounsaturated fatty acid of beef with a high fat content non-destructively by measuring impedance with touch type electrodes.
Branding for meat is being actively pursued in all parts of Japan, but against the backdrop of intensifying competition, both domestic and internationally, it is increasingly important to build a strong brand, and more effective methods of doing so are required. Accordingly, this study attempts to find further suggestions for the branding of meat products, a questionnaire was conducted with representatives of existing meat brands, and a multiple regression analysis was performed to examine what sort of branding activities had an effect on the brands performance. As a result of this survey, it became clear that the following four branding activities had a positive effect on performance : 1. having a unique brand concept, 2. interaction with consumers and promotions that allow them to actually taste the product, 3. cooperation between organizations to promote the brand, and 4. an emphasis on appearance and the design of the packaging. In particular, it was shown that having a unique brand concept was highly important.