GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 11
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 11 Pages Cover1-
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 11 Pages Cover2-
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Jiro YONEKURA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 1-3
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    The lower Ganges basin is one of the oldest agricultural regions of the world, and is considered as the original place of rice culture from where it has spread over Southeast and East Asia in the ancient times. There grow three kinds of rices in the Ganges delta ; namely Aus, Amon as Kharif (summer) crops and Boro as Rabi (winter) crops. Aus cultivation coincides with the period of monsoon rainfall and is earlier maturing variety than the Amon variety. Aus and Amon rice is usually planted in over flooded plain in rainy season, and Boro is originally cultivated around marsh where the needed moisture is given even in dry season . The Shueido method which appeared in one of the Chinese classics, which was practised in the Yangtze basin in China also adopted the same pattern in which paddy fields were naturally flooded. It is evidenced also in Chinese classics that the Chinese witnessed the practice of the Rac system in ancient Vietnam in which rice cultivation was operated by the paddy field with river water during the high tide. In prehistoric Japan, people seems to have adopted this primitive type of cultivation, because many village sites in the Yayoi age were founded along back-marsh of the old river or lagoons near the former coastline. Double cropping of rice cultivation is practised as far as southern part of China particularly in Kuantung Delta and Taiwan. In Japan this system of rice cultivation has been developed independently in the 20th century in the limited area in South Western part where the temperature is high and typhoon often destroy the ordinarly rice, to avoid this failure something like the Aus type of Indian rice has been brought up, but the area under double cropping of rice in Japan is decreasing every year due to the shortgage of man power in the rural area. Boro, the winter rice, is planted as far as North Vietnam owing to the length of growing season. In the middle and upper Ganges Plain the rainfall decreases gradually and rice cultivation become less and wheat, barely and millets take the place. The artificial irrigation is profitable to Rabi crops by means of well, tank or canal. Among them perenial canal is rather recently developed in India. On the contrary the canal irrigation for paddy field in China and Japan developed much earlier. It was so apparent that F. von Richthofen differenciated the agriculture of India from that of China according to the irrigation type: that is, over-flow or flood irrigation in India and canal irrigation in China. Actually well and tank irrigations in India have developed since the ancient time and have been develo ping rapidly particularly since the Independence. F. von Richthofen did not see those types of irrigation, so he classified very simply as above-mentioned. But his classification even adopts to the paddy cultivation in the lower Ganges. Rice cultivation gives more yield per acre than other cereals, and it needs much care : for example, transplanting, weeding and especially irrigation. Therefore rice cultivation has become a family management on a small scale.
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  • Yoshihiko SHIRAI
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 4-16
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    We are inclined to consider that we should be able to plan out an unrestrained program of the readjustment of the arable land in many lagoons beside the coastal plains in Japan because they have few existing conditions, newly-developed, as compared with the general alluvial plains. In the present study as a preparatory work to the regional examination of the methods of readjusting the arable land in Japan, I took up the example of the lagoon land improvement section in Chiba Prefecture (Tsubakiumi Drained Reclamation Land) as a studying object, and studied how for the methods of readjusting the arable land has been determined by the natural, social and economic conditions in the lagoon. Consequently I pointed out that the methods of readjustment in this area have not necessarily been determined by the shortcoming of the draining function of the Shinkawa River as the draining river of the lagoon, but by the poor waterway function of the Otone Irrigation Water as the reservoir in this area. Therefore the methods of readjustment of the arable land, which should be naturally determined by the choice of the system of farm management by the farmers, must have been temporizing ones.
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  • Hirotada KAWAMURA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 17-30
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    Each city has its own city-region around it outside the administrative boundary. The area does not stay fixed, but affected by the development of cily functions, undergoes continuous changes ; both the range and the structure of the area change according to the change of central place functions, the development of traffic facilities and the activities of regional economy, etc. In this article the writer deals with five main cities in Kyushu : Fukuoka, Kitakyushu, Kumamoto, Kagoshima and Nagasaki. The investigation was conducted into comparative analysis of the daily jaurney of workers commuting to these central cities from the surrounding countryside. The main points ascertained are as follows: 1 ) The labor of the five cities has grown rapidly in recent years. In consequence, the daily inflow of workers to these central cities strikingly increased in number from 1960 to 1965. The largest inflow in 1965 is found in Fukuoka (72, 269) and Kitakyushu (49, 249). They are followed by Kumamoto (18, 654), Kagoshima (14, 985) and Nagasaki (10, 735). It may be noted that the number is not directly proportional to the total resident population of the city. The rate of increase is highest also in Fukuoka (77.6%), which is closely followed by Kumamoto (62. 7%), and Kagoshima (54, 3%). Nagasaki (37. 3%) and Kitakyushu (35. 9 %) show a relatively low percentage. 2 ) Since the area of a city-region usually takes the shape of a starfish, it extends its range in three ways: the extension in a projecting direction (usually along railroad routes), the reclamation of a valley section and the filling-up of what may be called a caved-in part. The extension in a projecting direction grows sharper with a high and rapid growth of central place functions. Such cases are seen in Fukuoka and Kumamoto areas; the most example is the extension along the Nishitetsu Omuta Line in Fukuoka area, in which case the distance between the central city and the outer limit of the area is as long as 50 kilometers. 3 ) An inquiry into the number of commuters living in various municipalities indicates that, in the rate of increase in the number from 1930 to 1965, the municipalities of Fukuoka prefectures have the tendancy to rank highest and then come those of Kagoshima, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, and Kitakyushu prefectures. But, this order compared with that of the growth of their centrality (the rate of increase of labor absorbing power), the rank of Kagoshima and Kumamoto are reversed in the latter. The reason for this may be attributed to the fact that Kumamoto has an area in the shape of a concentric circle, that is to say the labor absorbing power is broken up in all directions to lessen its effect on each individual municipality. 4 ) Most of the coal-mining districts have strikingly intensified the relation to their central cities. This intensification, however, results not only from the increase of commuters to the central cities but from the relative rise of the rate of flow caused by the drastic decrease of the labor population in these districts. 5 ) Fukuoka and Kitakyushu area mingle with each other along the railway, the Kagoshima main Line. Within this mingling sphere Fukuoka area has been extending its range while Kitakyushu area has been retreating. This indicates that Fukuoka has a greater influence upon the sphere than Kitakyushu. The following conclusion may be drawn from the above. Fukuoka has the greatest labor absorbing power among the five cities in question, and the growth of its area has been the most striking. Kitakyushu has as large an area as Fukuoka, which extends as far as 50 kilometers in one direction, and the rate of flow of this area is high, but its growth is slowing down. Nagasaki area, which is small and narrow as a result of the geographical restriction, shows growth as dull as Kitakyushu. Kumamoto, the area of which has the shape of a concentric circle, does not have a powerful effect on each municipality within the area in spite of its st
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  • Goro MAKIMOTO, Tsukasa NAKAGAWA, Mitsuo NAKANO
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 31-38
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    In this paper, the writers dealt with the "Median Tectonic Line" which separates the Upper Cretaceous Izumi group in the north from the Sambagawa crystalline schist in the south along the southern foot of the central Sanuki mountain-range, and recognized that it had moved at least twice. The "Median Tectonic Line" in this district can also be divided into two phases, pre-Shobudani and Late Pleistocene Shobudani. The former is observed in the eastern part of the district, and its plane is N 80゜-N 85゜ E and N 70゜. On the other hand, the latter is represented by a thrust fault in various places of the district where the Izumi group or the crystalline schist is thrust over the Pleistocene gravel formation with a distinct fault plane having N 60゜-80゜ E strike and N 20゜-35゜ dip. Both are nearly parallel to each other in direction, but sometimes the latter cuts off the former. It is interesting to see that two kinds of the thrust faults are almost parallel to the "Median Tectonic Line" at the Shobudani phase in some places where the Izumi group also thrusts up on the gravel bed. These faults were formed in the same time or the later stage of the Shobudani phase. The Pleistocene river terrace gravel formation is divided into two members, the lower gravel bed and the upper gravel bed. The former is characterized by the presence of well sorted pebbles derived from the Sambagawa crystalline schist region, but such kinds of pebbles are entirely lacking in the latter. It seems that this phenomenon was influenced by the movement of the "Median Tectonic Line" during the Shobudani phase. It is important fact that in the eastern part of the district the both gravel formations contain well-sorted granite pebbles derived from the granite region in the north. From this point, it is deemed that the Soedani-river running south ward in the eastern part of the district may have been an antecedent river across the Sanuki range since the time when the river terrace gravel bed was deposited.
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  • Tomonori ISHIKAWA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 39-49
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Hiroshi ISHIDA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 50-56
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    The IGU Symposium on Land Use in Developing Countries, Aligarh, was attended by 69 delegates from 19 different countries of the world. Lively discussions in the sessions and relaxed chatting at the hotel were fruitful and have paved the way for further development of land use study. Land use and agricultural geography are among major items of Indian geographers. Aligarh Muslim University, the host university of the Symposium, is the first Indian university to have established the department of geography and is well known by The Geogrpaher. It may be safely said that the Department today is the centre of land use study in India. Some characteristics of land use and land use studies in India were revealed at the Symposium. It was surprising that only a little permanent pasture and grazing land is left and that vast area are devoted to double and triple cropping while multiple use of the same plot is still practised to minimize the loss and damage of crops which may be caused by natural disasters. Although cows are an essential feature of Indian way of life, they are not so economically important and thus the crop and animal combination has scarecely been adopted as land utilization category. It was another discovery that Indian geographers do not generally assess the social and cultural factors, which are deeply rooted into their tradition, in the study of land utilization. Most valuable help was given by Professor M. Shafi & Dr. M. Anas and other staff members to whom the writer's very warm thanks are expressed here. The Aligarh Muslim University extended a warm hospitality to the delegates, for which his deep gratitude is due. It would be desirable for delegates to keep a close academic contact on a basis of common feeling at Aligarh.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 57-
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 58-59
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 59-60
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 60-61
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 61-
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 61-62
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 11 Pages 62-
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 11 Pages App1-
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 11 Pages Cover3-
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 11 Pages Cover4-
    Published: May 20, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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