GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 12
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 12 Pages Cover1-
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 12 Pages Cover2-
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Shoichi YOKOYAMA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 1-16
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    The author has been stayed in Western Europe and North America from September to December in 1967 which oversease accademic study supported by the Japan Ministry of Education. Main purpose of the study ware politico-economic geographical views on the core areas and its marginal lands (frontier and border regions) in each countries, in especially, stayed in West Germany and its neighbour countries during the first half Period. This article is the first report of the above study, and the author has to express my hearty thanks to Prof. Dr. Peter Scholler. Wiss. Assistant Dr. Alois Mayer and Herrn Heinz Heineberg of Geography Instiute in the Ruhr University (Bochum), Herrn Edmund Linden, Director of Econmic Development Department of Stadt Dusseldorf. In this article, the Ruhrgebiet covered 26 administrative districts by development planning of the Siedlungsverband Ruhrkohlenbezirk (SVR), and the author has to make clear two points : 1) developing patterns in the Ruhr and 2) to explain detail the reorganize through views the SVR's plannings in 1960 and 1964. We have distinctly recognise that the Ruhr is core area in the Rhein-Ruhr Metropolitan Area caused by highest population density and its economic activities. But we can seperated six patterns in the Ruhr within physical features, historical tendency and economic activities as follows : Ruhr Valley, Hellweg axis, Emscher valley, Recklinghausen hills, Lippe valley and Munsterland (Fig. 1 and 2). All most of people lives in urban areas but no one of cities can be said to dominate the others, so called, the Ruhr is most typical polycentric urban areas in the world. On the development patterns ; Ruhrgebiet is based upon the Ruhr coal field and harlf-and-over of workers employed into industry but Hellweg cities (Essen, Bochum and Dortmunt) has many employees into the tertiary industry more than the others. In especially, Cities of Recklinghausen hills are based upon coal mining and chemical industries which called one-industry and one-class towns in commonly (Tabe 1). These differential patterns are distinctly appeares in landscape which shown in Fig. 3. The Ruhr valley is old coal mining area and changes to residential and recreation areas in today, but population is saturated. Hellweg region is core area in the Ruhr and cities developed along the Hellweg route, and Altstadt and Neustadt developed in each cities. Urbanizing is expanded during World War II and we can see lack of open space and occured air pollution, but on the other hand, these urbanized areas has original town planning-siedlungsplanung in Essen and Bochum. Emscher valley developed after mid-nineteen century based upon coal mining industry, and all most of all cities are small and medium size. Population dencity is very high and city function is very simple, so that this region faces to occuring serious problems into economic and social sides which caused by declining of coal mining industry. And so many worker's colonies has become slum. Recklinghausen hills is fertail agricultural region and new residental estates (siedlung) developed by expand of coal mining after 1920's period. Some big coal chemical factories established in this region. Along the Lippe valley, small size cities located and new town-for example Wulfen-construacted after the war. This region has growing to new developing land in the Ruhr. To north region, Munsterland is agricultural lands and agriculural products supply to the Ruhr, its northern limit of coal field. Munsterland has become supplying area of workers to the Ruhr.
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  • Tuneo TERADO
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 17-34
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    There are many high-level gentle slopes in the Asan (Sanuki) Mountains, north-eastern Shikoku. The writer classified them into three ; top gentle slopes (T slopes), top-flank gentle slopes (TF slopes), and flank gentle slopes (F slopes). He surveyed mainly their distribution and characteristics, and discussed their formation. Following are conclusions; 1. High-level gentle slopes occupy 31.9% area in the western part of the Mountains, 50. 9 % in the central, 17. 6% in the eastern. When seen in the N-S direction, at the right angle with the base-line along the Median Dislocation Line, which is one of the 1st class tectonic lines in Japan, 88% of the high-level gentle slopes are in the zone between the base-line and 6 km north of it, especially 56. 1% of the whole are in the zone 2 to 4 km north of the base-line. 2. There are many relationships between distribution of the high-level gentle slopes and the geological structure of the Izumi Group constituting their base rock. The large portion of F slopes are near its synclinal axis, and many of TF slopes are near the southern limb of the syncline. The greater part of F slopes have steep cliffs at their back-ground and small mounds and slight depressions on their surfaces. As to the geological profiles observed at many outcrops showing deposition of detritus and some bedding of base rock, it is probable that F slopes were resulted from the mass sliding on the back slopes of cuesta. The characteristics of T slopes are different from those of F slopes, but it is not yet solved whether T slopes are the relics of uplifted peneplains or not. 3. Although it was reported that some portion of the high-level gentle slopes belonged to the piedmonttreppen, the writer cannot discover the clear evidences, but at the present stage he cannot deny the piedmonttreppen theory, because some high-level gentle slopes, e. g. those in the north of the Awa-Ikeda Station or in the north of Kamiitacho, have the accordant levels and it is more reasonable to attribute their formation other than landslide. 4. The asymmetric distribution of the high-level gentle slopes in the N-S direction is one of the notable characteristics. The earlier upwarping in the northern part has the high-level gentle slopes eroded out and the later upheaval in the southern part along the Median Line made the slopes……T slopes perhapss……remained without dissection. 5. Relationships between the high-level gentle slopes and facies of the Izumi Group are not clear at present.
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  • Hiroshi MORIKAWA
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 35-47
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Toshiro Naruse
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 48-57
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    This paper is to present the result of the analysis of dune sand and the interpretation of the properties of sand in the Fukiagehama dune field. Along the Fukiagehama coast facing to the East China Sea, the extensive dune field ranges 19km in length, with the width of 0. 6km at Yoshitoshi and of 2. 5km at Takahashi, from North to South. The horizon of these dunes may be divided into five layers ; A1, A2, A3, A4, and D. A1: Fore dune sand, active. A2 : Secondary dune sand, stabilized by vegetation. A3 : Consolidated sand of the more mature inland dune. A4 : Beneath the humus soil layer. D : Lower Pleistocene. Each sand has its own properties. Attention was focussed to clarify the environment during dune formation and the geomorphic history of the region through the analyses of sand : grain size distribution, mineral content and grain morphology. The results are summerized as follows: 1 ) A certain synthetic analysis composed of grain size distribution, mineral content and grain morphology may be necessary to distinguish dune sand and beach sand. A single analysis does not indicate the clear differerence between them. 2 ) Dune sands show the following properties: their mean diameter ranges from 0. 75 to 2. 2, sorting from 0. 45 to 0. 8, kurtosis from-0. 5 to 0. 7. And they have higher values of roundness, of proportion of heavy mineral content and of EM, RM type than beach sands. 3 ) As the dune sands become older, the value of Mdφ decreases; the value of roundness increases; grain morphology transforms from NU. EL type to EM type, and further to RM type. The value of mineral content differs considerably according to the location, but quartz contain of A4 sand increases compared with A1, A2 and A3. 4 ) As a whole, the value of Mdφ and mineral content of those dune sands changes gradually from North to South. This tendency may be caused by the littoral current. But near river mouths, what is mentioned above is not always appliable: contain of volcanic glass and pumice from Shirasu bed increases in dune sands. This was also favourably tested in the three analyses.
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  • Toshiaki Nojiri
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 58-64
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 65-68
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 69-
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 69-
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (153K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 69-70
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 70-71
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 71-72
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 12 Pages 72-
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1969 Volume 12 Pages App1-
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 12 Pages Cover3-
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    Download PDF (23K)
  • Type: Cover
    1969 Volume 12 Pages Cover4-
    Published: December 15, 1969
    Released: April 14, 2017
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