Since the I.G. U. Commission on Agricultural Typology was established on the occasion of the I.G. U. meeting held in London in July 1964, Jerzy Kostrowicki has published successively several laborious works on agricultural typology in accordance with the replies to the two kinds of methodological questionnaires by the Commission, which had been distributed to over one hundred scholars in various countries who had been interested in this branch of learning. Although it cannot be said that the number of the cooperators with the Commission is numerous, the various activities by the Commission have been gradually rewarded with good fruits, and it is scheduled that the 4th Meeting of this Commission is to be held at Verona in the and October in September 1970. lam sorry to state that the aims and objectives of agricultural typology are not fully understood by many geographers in Japan as yet, and on account of this reason I intend to translate and introduce the essential points of three theses written by Kostrowicki gathered in Dokumentacja Geograficzna, 1970. These are the theses numbered (4), (5) and (6) in the body in Japanese. The contents of this paper are as follows: I Pi-ogress of research activities on agricultural typology, and the theses by Jerzy Kostrowicki. II The fundamental notions and the significance of agricultural typology. III Criteria, indices and combination of indices for the classification of types of agriculture. IV Methods of Kostrowicki's typological study on agriculture In Poland. Although perhaps there remain some questions to be resolved in the methods of classifing the types of agriculture, I believe that Kostrwicki's enthusiastic endeavour, who has adovocated and devoted himself to classify the types of agriculture in the world and those in various, regions on the basis of uniform criteria, methods and techniques, is to be highly appraised. It is necessary for us hereafter that we have to investigate what kinds of criteria and indices should be selected and how to combine them, in order to correctly evaluate the agriculture in Japan In the world from the point of view of typology. Although I do not think that the indices selected by Kostrowicki on agriculture in Poland can be fully applied without any modification, I intend to prudently consider the basis of his opinion.
In this article, the author summarized the studies on late Pleistocene sea-1evel, which have been discussed for the recent 10 years. The glacial eustatic theory has been developed on the assumption that the contemporary ancient shorelines can be correlated by means of coordination of the respectlve altitudes. As an inevitable sensequence of logic, the classicical glacial eustaticians had to recognize the gradual lowering of the high standlines of interglacial sea-1evels throughout the Pleistecene. The recent glacial hydrologic studies suggested another assumption that interglacial high sea-1evels had never risen more than a few tens meters. The marine terraces and deposits in the coasts of Florida. Morocco and Madagascar should be noted as instances supporting this theory. In 1960' s, a number of the radiometric absolute dates of marine- deposits were determined in so many coasts in the world as to reconstruct the eustatic change of late Pleistocene sea-level. The author arranged the radiometric absolute dates from coastal marine deposits and the concerning shorelines to draw the curve of the fluctuation of sea-level in the last 200 OOO years(Fig. 3). The estimates of the maximum hights of sea-levels are based mainly, on the mean altitudes of the contemporary shorelines. The curve of Fig. 3 is coordinated with the change of climate. This curve will be very suggestive for the study on coastal morphology.
On July 25, 1892, the north flank of Mt. Takaiso, on the right side midstream of the Naka River, slipped into the valley (fig. 2) and dammed up its channel. After about 50 hours the c]am gave a way and caused a great flood …Aradani Flood. 1. The naturally dammed reservoir had a volume of 72 million m^3 and an area of 3.2km^2. The flood reached the mouth of the river 67km below the dam about 5 or 6 hours later after the breaking of dam. Its uppermost water level is shown with a fine full-1ine in fig. 3. The Nagayasuguchi Reservoir was constructed 4 km downstream from Mt. Takalso. There seems to be a danger of landslides taking place in this area even now. The writer estimated the danger of landslides around the reservoir from several reasons enmaly (fig. 4) I. the distance from the Butsuzo Tectonic Line, II. the existence of thick shale beds, III. the undercut slope of the river, IV. the slope gradient of 40° or more. V. the existence of thick talus deposits. Fig. 4 shows dangerous areas by different hatches, the multihatched area will be must dangerous. 3. The writer estimated the magnitude of the disaster If it happened by the over-flow of Nagayasuguchi Dam, and concluded that the flood would occur on almost the same as Aradani Flood.
This paper is a result of some analyses in the structure of area] distribution of the big establishments in Japan. The indices of the big establihments are selected about the companies with a capital of more than 100 million yens. According to the establishment Census in 1966, there were 5,307 big establishments in Japan. The number of the big establishments does not accord with the number of estrangement was huge in the case of the commerce and the manufacturing industries which have many establishments. Viewed from distrubution of the big establishments by prefectures, their order and number were as follows: Tokyo 2,389 (Ratio to a]] Japan was 45.3%) Osaka 816 (15.4%) Aichi 331(6.3%), Kanagawa and Hyogo 219 (4.2%). In most local prefectures there were usually about 20 companies but foul prefectures Yamanashi, Tottori, Shimane, and Akita have, less than 10 companies. And the more the establishments became large, the more it tended to concentrate in Tokyo and Osaka. Figure I shows the distrubution by cities, towns and villages. According to it, consolidation of establishment was conspicuous in the three metropolises of Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, and also in the cities located within the above metropolises. And that, there was some difference of the distribution of the establishment within metropolises among those cities, but the head offices of big consolidation tended to concentrate in each central district. Therefore, the consolidation of these big consolidation is an important factor to constitute CBD. On the other hand, the big establishments were few in local cities, and most establishment in them were finance, transport and services which had their fixed service areas. Thus, area] distribution of the head offices of big establishment, which reflect central function, varies according to the arrangement, scale, centrality which cities have (Figs. 1, 2).