GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 20
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1973 Volume 20 Pages Cover1-
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1973 Volume 20 Pages Cover2-
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Jiro YONEKURA
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 1-6
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    The excavation of Mohenjo-Daro revealed the most ancient town planning in the world. In the chapter "Architecture and Massonry" in the vol. 1 of the voluminous reports "Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization" which was published m 1931 under the direction of Sir John Marshall, Ernest Mackay had stated that all main streets were oriented to the points of the compass, the broad streets were about 30ft. wide, and the lanes varied from 3 ft. 8 inches. to 7ft. in width. In the attached general map "Site Plan of MohenJo-Daro" were shown First Street and East Street as the main streets running north-south and east-west respectively. Mr. Mackay continued the excavation and published "Further Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro, vol. 2 in 1938. Prof. S. Piggot indicated at first the street-plan on Mohenjo-Daro as shown in Fig. I using the site plan of above two reports. He supposed the basic lay-out would be a gridiron of main streets running north-south and east-west, dividing the area into blocks of roughly equal size and approximately rectangular in shape, 800ft. east-to-west and 1200ft. north-to-south. The present author interpretes a new idea regarding the township of Mohenjo-Daro vide Fig. 2. The difference between two figures is caused mostly from the north-south street direction of Dk area C section in the site plan of Mohenjo-Daro. It is written in N 1°-2° W direction in the plan, but according to the detailed map of Dk area B and C sections (-PL. LXII in vol. 3 of Marshall's Report), it is clear that the direction is at least N 5° E, and the present author corrected the direction of these sites with relation to A and G sections. Thus the north-south street in Dk area B section is almost parallel to the First St. on the contrary to the Piggot's plan, in which streets run unparallel; this is the result of the mistaken mapping in original site plan. North-south street in A section in Dk area is also parallel to the First St., and extending street lines in A. B and C sections the present author found that the distance between these streets are almost equal with about 600 ft. or 180m. The present author supposed the width of blocks would be 600ft. Drawing parallel to the First St. to the westward, the first line coincides with the western edge of eastern mound of the site, and the second one traverses the eastern edge of Stupa mound, passing through the Stupa site. It would have significant meaning. Although this Stupa was erected during 2 century A. D., but the site would have been the religious centre since the beginning of the town. We found such site was used as the centre of towns in ancient orient and Indian cities, this tradition would have been occurred from Indus Cities. It is said that the so-called East St. which passed through the site from east to west would be the standard line, but this is not backed by excavation. The broad way which has about 30ft. width was found only in two places, one in the southern street of the great Bath, and the other in Dk area C section. If we extend these two street lines, the distance between them is almost 600ft and thus we can affirm the standard block must be 600ft. square in shape, and also as to the demarcation standard line of east-west streets would be the line which coincides with the southern street of great Bath, because it is quite close to Stupa. Many supposed street lines are situated on the edges of mounds. From the excavation it is clear that the main street was paved with bricks, so they would have stood against the erosion. We can conclude that the township of Mohenjo-Daro was laid out in grid pattern, 600it. × 600ft. square block as standard, north-south standard line of demarcation was the line which passed through the Stupa and has N 6° E direction, and the east-west standard line was the one which passed to the southern limit of the great Bath. The extent of the town would

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  • Bireswar Banerjee, Jayati Hazra
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 7-13
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Shigeki YOSHIDA
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 14-20
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    This paper is concerned with the re-examination of the role of toponymy in academic field of research. The writer selected the place-names ; tani and sawa. both of which mean valley, and investigate their distribution on the toposheets. As a result, a clear line may be safely drawn from Oyashirazu to Kuwana in Central Japan. This line may fittingly be named as O-K line which divides Japan into two parts;the southwestern and northeastern. The former corresponds to tani and to the Yamato clan, and the latter to sawa and to the Azuma clan. The historical data and the results of the fields of history and archaeology are not contradiction to the facts mentioned above. It is hoped that the toponymy will contribute to the fields of history and archaeology in the development of the study in ancient (history in) Japan. To this and, it is further hoped that the place name will be studied from the lights of historical-and archaeological geography.
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  • Takashi FUJITA
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 21-30
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to throw a revealing light on the constructing process of the collective housing lots and its charasteristics in the Fukuoka Metropolitan Area. The area studied in this paper consists of 24 administrative units in and around Fukuoka city; total area being 1,158.6km^2 with total population 1,280,412, based on census in 1970. The ratio of commuters to Fukuoka city is between 10 and 50% in every unit. Judging from the transportation system, the above area is divided into five: Fukuoka City proper, the Eastern, the Western, the Southern and the Northern District. It is considerd that the collective housing lots were constructed here without any difficulty because the geology is alluvium in Fukuoka Plain. Tertiary series in the low hill and granite in the gentle slope of the mountain. The construction of the collective housing lots has been proceeded under the initiative not only of Fukuoka city and prefecture and Japan Housing Corporation but also of private enterprises. From the historical point of view, firstly public collective housing lots were constructed during 1950's and then corporation housing lots succeeded by Japan Housing Corporation which was established in 1955. Both housing lots by then were located mostly within Fukuoka City District. On the other hand private enterprises started to gain power in 1960,and have been playing the most important role. In accordance with the advancing private enterprises the construction area of the collective housing lots have been shifted toward the Southern District in favor of the communication with Fukuoka city and further spread to the Northern and the Eastern Districts. However, the construction of collective housing lots has been not yet fully advanced in the Western District. In private enterprises to construct them, there are both local and central ones. Among former ones Nishinippon Railroad Company is most worthwhile to be noticed. Latter ones started their enterprises in this area later than in 19'o~5, which are influenced on public entity as well as local private enterprises. In Onojo city and Munakata town an Act with regard to the construction of the collective housing lots was established in cope with the developement of the collective housing lots. The effect of this Act is carefully waiting to be got into shape.
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  • Yoshinori OTAKE
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 31-42
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    To analyze the characteristics of geometric properties of small drainage basins and also to obtain the relationships between the above two, the writer conducted an investigation in landform in Tanabe and Sanda hill areas which are slightly different in geological and topographical features. Four drainage basins (Ta-d) located in Tanabe hills which are composed of Osaka group (Plio-Pleistocene) and five drainage basins (Sa-e) in Sanda hills which are composed of Kobe group (Miocene) were studied by the author. These stream networks were determined from topographic maps (1 : 5000) with more details based on field studies. Air photographs were also used for checking stream networks and stream heads. In this paper stream networks are classified in order after the Strahler's method. The results may safely be summerized as follows: 1) The bifurcation ratio of the first-order to the second-order streams ranges from 3.4 to 6.3 and that of the third-order to the fourth-order ranges from 2.0 to 4.0. Therefore, the number of stream segments of each order does not exactly form an inverse geometric series with order. 2) Frequency-distribution histograms of stream lengths of the first-and second-order show marked right-skewnesses, which appears to be corrected by plotting log values on the abscissa (Fig. 4a, b). The distribution of stream lengths of the first-order shows two peaks and that of the second-order ranges more widely than that of the first-order. 3) The histograms of drainage area of the first- and second-order show the log-normal distributions (Fig. 6a, b). 4) The stream lengths of each order do not form a geometric series with order. The scattered data of nine basins are markly around a reggression line fitted by the method of the least squares. However, the stream length which is obtained by the quasi-Horton's ordering system ([numerical formula]) is fitted with the reggression line (Fig. 3). In the least square method the plottings of drainage areas of different orders form a straight line with slight dispersions. 5) Fig. 7a and Fig. 7b show a high correlation of drainage area (A) with mainstream length (L) in two hill areas. This relation was expressed with the equation L =aA^r by Hack (1957). The exponents(r) of this regressional equations are 0.594 and 0.597, respectively. These values agree quite well with that 'obtained by Hack and Gray. Kayane (1972) proposed that the exponent (r) in Hack's relation may be expressed by r≒D/H (the length ratio e^D, the drainage area ratio e^H). Instead of length ratio e^D, the values e^K of which are obtained by the quasi-Horton's stream ordering system has been adopted by the author. Using e^K and e^H for two groups of basins, values of r are 0.600 and 0.597, respectively. These values agree remarkably with one obtained by the correlation with drainage area and mainstream length. . These results may support that Hack's relation is a difinite one. The stream length obtained by the quasi-Horton's relation may be useful index for the geometric analysis. 6) The reason why the value of r is about O. 6 may be pointed that the form of the drainage basin is prolonged with increasing of drainage area and/or the sinuosity of length is increased with that. In Tanabe hills the basin length (Lb) increases in accordance with increasing of drainage area. On the other hand, in Sanda hills the basin length scarcely in accordance with the increasing of drainage area, so that sinuosity may be enlarged.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 43-44
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 44-45
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    Download PDF (340K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 45-46
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 46-47
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 47-
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 48-49
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1973 Volume 20 Pages 50-
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1973 Volume 20 Pages Cover3-
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1973 Volume 20 Pages Cover4-
    Published: December 01, 1973
    Released: April 14, 2017
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