GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 25
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1976 Volume 25 Pages Cover1-
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1976 Volume 25 Pages Cover2-
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Shuichi Nakayama
    Type: Article
    1976 Volume 25 Pages 1-17
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    The writer clarified in the former paper (Nakayama, 1975) that the villagers, especially those agriculturists in the Gaggarbhana, Amritsar District, used to visit three different market towns according to their selective demand for the manufacturing goods and its service functions. These three market towns were Baba Bakala, Mehta and Raya in Amritsar District. The purpose of the present paper is to clarify the pattern of difference and their causes in the concentration of the manufacturing goods and its service functions in each of the above market towns. Data was collected during our geographical field research held in November, 1972 as a part of the research project in which Prof. H. Ishida of Hiroshima University commanded the project team. The main theme of this project was "The Village in Northwestern India: A Geographical Study". The comparative geographical method was introduced in the present paper for the basic analysis of data. The manufacturing, processing, commercial and public functions were grouped into four major, eight sub-major and sixteen minor groups. One of the important process of grouping was to settle the basic goods and the modernised one. Those goods needed for keeping the traditional rural life as well as agricultural system were grouped into the basic goods. On the other hand, the modernised were given to those goods needed for the modernisation of rural life and the radical change of agricultural system with the modern technics. The total number of shops, workshops, offices and other establishments located in each market town is 151 at Baba Bakala, 224 at Mehta and 247 at Raya respectively. The relative concentration of modernised functions dominated most at Raya, followed by Mehta, then Baba Bakala. Relatively, the basic establishments were concentrated in Baba Bakala. For villagers of Gaggarbhana to get to each of these market towns they have to cover a distance of 7 kms. in order to reach Baba Bakala, 7. 5kms. to Mehta and 12 kms. to Raya. This distance means that the contemporary popular transportation system, that is the bullock-cart, makes possible the one day return journey from the villlage to the market towns. The writer concludes that the striking difference in the concentration of the manufacturing activities and its service functions in the three market towns is a reflection of the development stage of rural economy in the study area. At the present stage the modernised functions of the manufacturing activities and its services concentrate in the market towns more actively than those of the basic one. Localization of the basic activity such as an artisan work in the village is making another progress recently. This process should be analysed in the following points: Agricultural production increased its tempo very rapidly in recent years. This rapid progress in agricultural production was realised through the "Green Revolution" since 1966 in the study area. In this development process both of the traditional and modern technics in agriculture were taken in the manner of almost same weight. However it is safely said that the traditional technics were intensified more by the agriculturist with small plots, because of its low operational cost for making progress in agriculture. Therefore, the traditional artisan work such as carpently and blacksmithy are needed in the village level more than before. On the other hand, the modern technics were introduced mainly by the progressive farmers who needed the modernised manufacturing goods and its services such as tractor selling and servicing. These modernised services concentrate into the market towns for its relatively high quality of service and the limitation of marketing area.
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  • Akira Matsushima
    Type: Article
    1976 Volume 25 Pages 18-26
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    The general circulation in the atmosphere is simulated, which is caused by periodical heating of the upper part of the ozonosphere and the lower part of the thermosphere in the same phase. If the heat in these heating layers becomes maximum in May, the following phenomena may occur in the circulation of the upper atmosphere. i ) Three nodes appear in the vertical distribution of the zonal wind. And the westerly regions and the easterly regions distribute alternately. The regions of the westerly appear in the layer of around 50-70 km and in the layer higher than 90km in altitude, altitude the regions of the easterly appear in the layer lower than 50km and in the layer around 80-90km. The maximum velocity of these winds occurs in February. ii) On the other hand, the regions of the northerly appear in the same layers as the westerly, while the regions of the southerly appear in the same layers as the easterly. Their maxima occur in May. iii) The thermosphere and the part of the mesosphere higher than around 70km in altitude are heated dynamically as a result of the general circulation. This dynamic heating reaches maximum in February. iv) A stationary depression is 10cated in the lower part (around 100km) of the thermosphere in winter.
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  • Hirotada KAWAMURA
    Type: Article
    1976 Volume 25 Pages 27-33
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    In the 10th year of Genroku (1697), the Shogunate intended to make a new Domain Map (the hand drawing map of each province) as the third attempt in the period of Tokugawa. The reason for the revision of the Domain Map was that the former Shoho Kuniezu became old with the lapse of over fifty years since its drawing. The chief Daimyo (feudal lord) in each province was allotted a portion of the work for this revision. Thus, a new Domain Map, called "Genroku Kuniezu", was completed after about five years, and consisted of eighty three pieces all over the country. The revision of the two Domain Maps of Suo and Nagato (now Yamaguchi prefecture) was undertaken by Matudaira Daizendayu, the Daimyo of Hagi Han (feudal clan). In the Yamaguchi Monjokan (the museum of historical materials) exist duplicates of these Domain Maps and a number of historical records referring to these matters. We are able to get the details of the revision of the two Domain Maps of SLIO and Nagato through these historical records. At the time of this undertaking, that is the revision of Domain Maps, the Shogunate built a hut at Hongo in Edo, for the purpose of inspecting the Domain Map one by one. Each Daimyo had to submit their Domain Maps to this hut in its rough sketch before making its fair copy. In this paper the writer investigated mainly how the rough sketches of the two Domain Maps of Suo and Nagato were inspected by the Shogunate. Three map officers examined carefully the two rough sketches while comparing their with the old Domain Map (Shoho Kuniezu). In this inspection the map officers paid attention for the most part to unify the drawing form, which was varied in each of the old Domain Map. Besides the officers thought much of the old Domain Map, and took a cautious attitude to make remarkable amendments in the contents of the old Domain Map. As a result of this inspection several questionable points were indicated on the two rough sketches of Suo and Nagato. The map officers applied such a way of inspection not only to Suo and Nagato, but also to all the other provinces in the country at the time of the revision of the Domain Map as a fundamental policy of the Shogunate.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1976 Volume 25 Pages 34-36
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1976 Volume 25 Pages 36-37
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1976 Volume 25 Pages 37-39
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1976 Volume 25 Pages 40-42
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1976 Volume 25 Pages App1-
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1976 Volume 25 Pages Cover3-
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1976 Volume 25 Pages Cover4-
    Published: 1976
    Released: April 14, 2017
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